Strategies have not been available until recently to uncover interacting protein networks specific to key cell types, their subcellular compartments, and their major regulators during complex in vivo events. Here we apply BioID2 proximity labeling to capture protein networks acting within cardiomyocytes during a key model of innate heart regeneration in zebrafish. Transgenic zebrafish expressing a promiscuous BirA2 localized to the entire myocardial cell or membrane compartment were generated, each identifying distinct proteomes in adult cardiomyocytes that became altered during regeneration. BioID2 profiling for interactors with ErbB2, a co-receptor for the cardiomyocyte mitogen Nrg1, implicated Rho A as a target of ErbB2 signaling in cardiomyocytes. Blockade of Rho A during heart regeneration, or during cardiogenic stimulation by the mitogenic influences Nrg1, Vegfaa or Vitamin D, disrupted muscle creation. Our findings reveal proximity labeling as a useful resource to interrogate cell proteomes and signaling networks during tissue regeneration in zebrafish.
RNA-seq data were deposited at GEO with the data identifier GSE168371. BioID2 raw MS proteomics datasets have been deposited to MassIVE with the data identifier MSV000087028.
- Mira I Pronobis
- Kenneth D Poss
- Kenneth D Poss
- Kenneth D Poss
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Procedures involving animals were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Duke University, Protocol number A005-21-01.
- Lilianna Solnica-Krezel, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
© 2021, Pronobis et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cylicins are testis-specific proteins, which are exclusively expressed during spermiogenesis. In mice and humans, two Cylicins, the gonosomal X-linked Cylicin 1 (Cylc1/CYLC1) and the autosomal Cylicin 2 (Cylc2/CYLC2) genes, have been identified. Cylicins are cytoskeletal proteins with an overall positive charge due to lysine-rich repeats. While Cylicins have been localized in the acrosomal region of round spermatids, they resemble a major component of the calyx within the perinuclear theca at the posterior part of mature sperm nuclei. However, the role of Cylicins during spermiogenesis has not yet been investigated. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in zygotes to establish Cylc1- and Cylc2-deficient mouse lines as a model to study the function of these proteins. Cylc1 deficiency resulted in male subfertility, whereas Cylc2-/-, Cylc1-/yCylc2+/-, and Cylc1-/yCylc2-/- males were infertile. Phenotypical characterization revealed that loss of Cylicins prevents proper calyx assembly during spermiogenesis. This results in decreased epididymal sperm counts, impaired shedding of excess cytoplasm, and severe structural malformations, ultimately resulting in impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, exome sequencing identified an infertile man with a hemizygous variant in CYLC1 and a heterozygous variant in CYLC2, displaying morphological abnormalities of the sperm including the absence of the acrosome. Thus, our study highlights the relevance and importance of Cylicins for spermiogenic remodeling and male fertility in human and mouse, and provides the basis for further studies on unraveling the complex molecular interactions between perinuclear theca proteins required during spermiogenesis.
During evolution, animals have returned from land to water, adapting with morphological modifications to life in an aquatic environment. We compared the osteochondral units of the humeral head of marine and terrestrial mammals across species spanning a wide range of body weights, focusing on microstructural organization and biomechanical performance. Aquatic mammals feature cartilage with essentially random collagen fiber configuration, lacking the depth-dependent, arcade-like organization characteristic of terrestrial mammalian species. They have a less stiff articular cartilage at equilibrium with a significantly lower peak modulus, and at the osteochondral interface do not have a calcified cartilage layer, displaying only a thin, highly porous subchondral bone plate. This totally different constitution of the osteochondral unit in aquatic mammals reflects that accommodation of loading is the primordial function of the osteochondral unit. Recognizing the crucial importance of the microarchitecture-function relationship is pivotal for understanding articular biology and, hence, for the development of durable functional regenerative approaches for treatment of joint damage, which are thus far lacking.