1. Neuroscience
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An open-source device for measuring food intake and operant behavior in rodent home-cages

  1. Bridget Alexandra Matikainen-Ankney
  2. Thomas Earnest
  3. Mohamed Ali
  4. Eric Casey
  5. Justin G Wang
  6. Amy K Sutton
  7. Alex A Legaria
  8. Kia M Barclay
  9. Laura B Murdaugh
  10. Makenzie R Norris
  11. Yu-Hsuan Chang
  12. Katrina P Nguyen
  13. Eric Lin
  14. Alex Reichenbach
  15. Rachel E Clarke
  16. Romana Stark
  17. Sineadh M Conway
  18. Filipe Carvalho
  19. Ream Al-Hasani
  20. Jordan G McCall
  21. Meaghan C Creed
  22. Victor A Cazares
  23. Matthew W Buczynski
  24. Michael J Krashes
  25. Zane B Andrews
  26. Alexxai V Kravitz  Is a corresponding author
  1. Washington University in St Louis, United States
  2. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, United States
  3. Virginia Polytechnic and State University, United States
  4. Monash University, Australia
  5. Open Ephys Production Site, Portugal
  6. Williams College, United States
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Cite this article as: eLife 2021;10:e66173 doi: 10.7554/eLife.66173

Abstract

Feeding is critical for survival and disruption in the mechanisms that govern food intake underlie disorders such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. It is important to understand both food intake and food motivation to reveal mechanisms underlying feeding disorders. Operant behavioral testing can be used to measure the motivational component to feeding, but most food intake monitoring systems do not measure operant behavior. Here, we present a new solution for monitoring both food intake and motivation in rodent home-cages: The Feeding Experimentation Device version 3 (FED3). FED3 measures food intake and operant behavior in rodent home-cages, enabling longitudinal studies of feeding behavior with minimal experimenter intervention. It has a programmable output for synchronizing behavior with optogenetic stimulation or neural recordings. Finally, FED3 design files are open-source and freely available, allowing researchers to modify FED3 to suit their needs.

Data availability

The FED3 device is open-source and design files and code are freely available online at: https://github.com/KravitzLabDevices/FED3. In addition, we have made all data and analysis code for this paper available at https://osf.io/hwxgv/.

The following data sets were generated

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Bridget Alexandra Matikainen-Ankney

    Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, Saint Lous, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  2. Thomas Earnest

    Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, Saint Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  3. Mohamed Ali

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  4. Eric Casey

    Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, Saint Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0003-0041-6586
  5. Justin G Wang

    Neuroscience, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  6. Amy K Sutton

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  7. Alex A Legaria

    Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, Saint Lous, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  8. Kia M Barclay

    Neuroscience, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  9. Laura B Murdaugh

    Neuroscience, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  10. Makenzie R Norris

    Neuroscience, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  11. Yu-Hsuan Chang

    Neuroscience, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  12. Katrina P Nguyen

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  13. Eric Lin

    Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, Saint Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  14. Alex Reichenbach

    Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  15. Rachel E Clarke

    Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  16. Romana Stark

    Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  17. Sineadh M Conway

    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  18. Filipe Carvalho

    Open Ephys Production Site, Lisbon, Portugal
    Competing interests
    Filipe Carvalho, Director of Open Ephys Production Site.
  19. Ream Al-Hasani

    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-8781-6234
  20. Jordan G McCall

    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-8295-0664
  21. Meaghan C Creed

    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  22. Victor A Cazares

    Department of Psychology, Williams College, Williamstown, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  23. Matthew W Buczynski

    Department of Neuroscience, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  24. Michael J Krashes

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0003-0966-3401
  25. Zane B Andrews

    Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-9097-7944
  26. Alexxai V Kravitz

    Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, Saint Louis, United States
    For correspondence
    alexxai@wustl.edu
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-5983-0218

Funding

National Institutes of Health (ZIADK075099)

  • Bridget Alexandra Matikainen-Ankney
  • Mohamed Ali
  • Amy K Sutton
  • Katrina P Nguyen
  • Michael J Krashes
  • Alexxai V Kravitz

National Institutes of Health (DA049924)

  • Meaghan C Creed

Whitehall Foundation (2017-12-54)

  • Meaghan C Creed

Rita Allen Foundation

  • Meaghan C Creed

Brain and Behavior Research Foundation

  • Meaghan C Creed
  • Alexxai V Kravitz

Washington University Diabetes Research Center

  • Bridget Alexandra Matikainen-Ankney
  • Thomas Earnest
  • Eric Casey
  • Alex A Legaria
  • Alexxai V Kravitz

Washington University Nutrition Obesity Research Center

  • Kia M Barclay
  • Makenzie R Norris
  • Yu-Hsuan Chang
  • Meaghan C Creed

National Institutes of Health (R00DA038725)

  • Ream Al-Hasani

National Institutes of Health (R01NS117899)

  • Jordan G McCall

McDonnell Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

  • Bridget Alexandra Matikainen-Ankney

National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia

  • Zane B Andrews

National Institutes of Health (DK108742)

  • Bridget Alexandra Matikainen-Ankney

National Institutes of Health (DA047127)

  • Meaghan C Creed

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: 166 C57Bl/6 mice were housed in a 12-hour light/dark cycle with ad libitum access to food and water except where described. Mice were provided laboratory chow diet (5001 Rodent Diet; Lab Supply, Fort Worth, Texas). All procedures were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee at Washington University in St Louis, the National Institutes of Health, Williams College, Virginia Tech and Monash University.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Denise Cai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: January 4, 2021
  2. Accepted: March 26, 2021
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: March 29, 2021 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: April 26, 2021 (version 2)

Copyright

This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

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