B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated antigen internalization and presentation are essential for humoral memory immune responses. Antigen encountered by B-cells is often tightly associated with the surface of pathogens and/or antigen-presenting cells. Internalization of such antigens requires myosin-mediated traction forces and extracellular release of lysosomal enzymes, but the mechanism triggering lysosomal exocytosis is unknown. Here we show that BCR-mediated recognition of antigen tethered to beads, to planar lipid-bilayers or expressed on cell surfaces causes localized plasma membrane (PM) permeabilization, a process that requires BCR signaling and non-muscle myosin II activity. B-cell permeabilization triggers PM repair responses involving lysosomal exocytosis, and B-cells permeabilized by surface-associated antigen internalize more antigen than cells that remain intact. Higher affinity antigens cause more B-cell permeabilization and lysosomal exocytosis and are more efficiently presented to T-cells. Thus, PM permeabilization by surface-associated antigen triggers a lysosome-mediated B-cell resealing response, providing the extracellular hydrolases that facilitate antigen internalization and presentation.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Norma W Andrews
- Wenxia Song
- Jurriaan JH van Haaren
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#R-JAN-18-02) of the University of Maryland. The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of the University of Maryland on January 11, 2018 .
- Michael L Dustin, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
© 2021, Maeda et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) in animal cells, the centrosome, comprises a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM), which nucleates and anchors microtubules. Centrosome assembly depends on PCM binding to centrioles, PCM self-association and dynein-mediated PCM transport, but the self-assembly properties of PCM components in interphase cells are poorly understood. Here, we used experiments and modeling to study centriole-independent features of interphase PCM assembly. We showed that when centrioles are lost due to PLK4 depletion or inhibition, dynein-based transport and self-clustering of PCM proteins are sufficient to form a single compact MTOC, which generates a dense radial microtubule array. Interphase self-assembly of PCM components depends on γ-tubulin, pericentrin, CDK5RAP2 and ninein, but not NEDD1, CEP152 or CEP192. Formation of a compact acentriolar MTOC is inhibited by AKAP450-dependent PCM recruitment to the Golgi or by randomly organized CAMSAP2-stabilized microtubules, which keep PCM mobile and prevent its coalescence. Linking of CAMSAP2 to a minus-end-directed motor leads to the formation of an MTOC, but MTOC compaction requires cooperation with pericentrin-containing self-clustering PCM. Our data reveal that interphase PCM contains a set of components that can self-assemble into a compact structure and organize microtubules, but PCM self-organization is sensitive to motor- and microtubule-based rearrangement.
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