β- and γ-cytoplasmic actins are ubiquitously expressed in every cell type and are nearly identical at the amino acid level but play vastly different roles in vivo. Their essential roles in embryogenesis and mesenchymal cell migration critically depend on the nucleotide sequences of their genes, rather than their amino acid sequence, however it is unclear which gene elements underlie this effect. Here we address the specific role of the coding sequence in β- and γ-cytoplasmic actins' intracellular functions, using stable polyclonal populations of immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts with exogenously expressed actin isoforms and their 'codon-switched' variants. When targeted to the cell periphery using the β-actin 3′UTR, β-actin and γ-actin have differential effects on cell migration. These effects directly depend on the coding sequence. Single molecule measurements of actin isoform translation, combined with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, demonstrate a pronounced difference in β- and γ-actins' translation elongation rates in cells, leading to changes in their dynamics at the focal adhesions, impairments in actin bundle formation, and reduced cell anchoring to the substrate during migration. Our results demonstrate that coding sequence-mediated differences in actin translation play a key role in cell migration.
Data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Raw images and videos for the main text figures are available at the Dryad depository with the following unique identifier: doi:10.5061/dryad.z34tmpgd2
Data from: Different translation dynamics of β-and γ-actin regulates cell migrationDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.z34tmpgd2.
- Anna Kashina
- Yi Jiang
- Yi Jiang
- Garegin Papoian
- Garegin Papoian
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Robert H Singer, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States
© 2021, Vedula et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Dynein harnesses ATP hydrolysis to move cargo on microtubules in multiple biological contexts. Dynein meets a unique challenge in meiosis by moving chromosomes tethered to the nuclear envelope to facilitate homolog pairing essential for gametogenesis. Though processive dynein motility requires binding to an activating adaptor, the identity of the activating adaptor required for dynein to move meiotic chromosomes is unknown. We show that the meiosis-specific nuclear-envelope protein KASH5 is a dynein activating adaptor: KASH5 directly binds dynein using a mechanism conserved among activating adaptors and converts dynein into a processive motor. We map the dynein-binding surface of KASH5, identifying mutations that abrogate dynein binding in vitro and disrupt recruitment of the dynein machinery to the nuclear envelope in cultured cells and mouse spermatocytes in vivo. Our study identifies KASH5 as the first transmembrane dynein activating adaptor and provides molecular insights into how it activates dynein during meiosis.
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