Each subplot shows baseline mortality (black), mortality in 2015–2019 (gray), in 2020 (red) and in 2021 (blue). Excess mortality is shown in red/blue shading. The numbers in each subplot are: total excess mortality (red), excess mortality per 100,000 population (black), excess mortality as a percentage of annual baseline mortality (gray), and undercount ratio of COVID-19 deaths (blue). See text for the exact definitions. All numbers were rounded to two significant digits; numbers below 100 to one significant digit. The -axis in each subplot starts at 0 and goes until 200% where 100% corresponds to the average baseline mortality. The -axis covers the entire year. Asterisks mark excess mortality estimates that were downwards corrected (see Materials and methods). Countries are sorted by the excess mortality as a percentage of annual baseline mortality (gray number). Undercount estimates are not shown for countries with negative total excess deaths and for selected countries where excess deaths were likely not related to the COVID-19 pandemic (Hong Kong, Thailand, Cuba); see Materials and methods.