During the essential and conserved process of zygotic genome activation (ZGA), chromatin accessibility must increase to promote transcription. Drosophila is a well-established model for defining mechanisms that drive ZGA. Zelda (ZLD) is a key pioneer transcription factor (TF) that promotes ZGA in the Drosophila embryo. However, many genomic loci that contain GA-rich motifs become accessible during ZGA independent of ZLD. Therefore, we hypothesized that other early TFs that function with ZLD have not yet been identified, especially those that are capable of binding to GA-rich motifs such as CLAMP. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila embryonic development requires maternal CLAMP to: 1) activate zygotic transcription; 2) increase chromatin accessibility at promoters of specific genes that often encode other essential TFs; 3) enhance chromatin accessibility and facilitate ZLD occupancy at a subset of key embryonic promoters. Thus, CLAMP functions as a pioneer factor which plays a targeted yet essential role in ZGA.
To review GEO accession GSE152613:Go to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE152613Enter token ihevsmiqnxexrod into the box
- Leila Rieder
- Leila Rieder
- Leila Rieder
- Erica Larschan
- Nicolas Fawzi
- Nicolas Fawzi
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Yukiko M Yamashita, Whitehead Institute/MIT, United States
© 2021, Duan et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Thymus-originated tTregs and in vitro induced iTregs are subsets of regulatory T cells. While they share the capacity of immune suppression, their stabilities are different, with iTregs losing their phenotype upon stimulation or under inflammatory milieu. Epigenetic differences, particularly methylation state of Foxp3 CNS2 region, provide an explanation for this shift. Whether additional regulations, including cellular signaling, could directly lead phenotypical instability requires further analysis. Here, we show that upon TCR (T cell receptor) triggering, SOCE (store-operated calcium entry) and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) nuclear translocation are blunted in tTregs, yet fully operational in iTregs, similar to Tconvs. On the other hand, tTregs show minimal changes in their chromatin accessibility upon activation, in contrast to iTregs that demonstrate an activated chromatin state with highly accessible T cell activation and inflammation related genes. Assisted by several cofactors, NFAT driven by strong SOCE signaling in iTregs preferentially binds to primed-opened T helper (TH) genes, resulting in their activation normally observed only in Tconv activation, ultimately leads to instability. Conversely, suppression of SOCE in iTregs can partially rescue their phenotype. Thus, our study adds two new layers, cellular signaling and chromatin accessibility, of understanding in Treg stability, and may provide a path for better clinical applications of Treg cell therapy.
Lipophorin is an essential, highly expressed lipid transport protein that is secreted and circulates in insect hemolymph. We hijacked the Anopheles coluzzii Lipophorin gene to make it co-express a single-chain version of antibody 2A10, which binds sporozoites of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The resulting transgenic mosquitoes show a markedly decreased ability to transmit Plasmodium berghei expressing the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein to mice. To force the spread of this anti-malarial transgene in a mosquito population, we designed and tested several CRISPR/Cas9-based gene drives. One of these is installed in, and disrupts, the pro-parasitic gene Saglin and also cleaves wild-type Lipophorin, causing the anti-malarial modified Lipophorin version to replace the wild type and hitch-hike together with the Saglin drive. Although generating drive-resistant alleles and showing instability in its gRNA-encoding multiplex array, the Saglin-based gene drive reached high levels in caged mosquito populations and efficiently promoted the simultaneous spread of the antimalarial Lipophorin::Sc2A10 allele. This combination is expected to decrease parasite transmission via two different mechanisms. This work contributes to the design of novel strategies to spread antimalarial transgenes in mosquitoes, and illustrates some expected and unexpected outcomes encountered when establishing a population modification gene drive.