(A) Overview of the experimental design with the four conditions genuine vs. pretended, pain vs. no pain. Examples show static images, while in the experiment participants were shown video clips. (B) Overview of experimental timeline. At the outset of each block, a reminder of ’genuine‘ or ’pretended‘ was shown (both terms are shown here for illustrative purposes, in the experiment either genuine or pretended was displayed). After a fixation cross, a video in the corresponding condition appeared on the screen. Followed by a short jitter, three questions about the video were separately presented and had to be rated on a visual analogue scale. These would then be followed by the next video clip and questions (not shown). (C) Violin plots of the three types of ratings for all conditions. Participants generally demonstrated higher ratings for painful expressions in others, painful feelings in others, and unpleasantness in self in the genuine pain condition than in the pretended pain condition. Ratings of all three questions were higher in the painful situation than in the neutral situation, regardless of whether in the genuine or pretended condition. The thick black lines illustrate mean values, and the white boxes indicate a 95% CI. The dots are individual data, and the “violin” outlines illustrate their estimated density at different points of the scale. (D) Correlations of painful feelings in others and unpleasantness in self for the genuine pain and the pretended pain (the relevant questions were highlighted with a green rectangular). Results revealed a significant Pearson correlation between the two questions in the genuine pain condition, but no correlation in the pretended pain condition. The lines represent the fitted regression lines, bands indicate a 95% CI.