Beside the isolation and identification of MHC-I restricted peptides from the surface of cancer cells, one of the challenges is eliciting an effective anti-tumor CD8+ T cell mediated response as part of therapeutic cancer vaccine. Therefore, the establishment of a solid pipeline for the downstream selection of clinically relevant peptides and the subsequent creation of therapeutic cancer vaccines are of utmost importance. Indeed, the use of peptides for eliciting specific anti-tumor adaptive immunity is hindered by two main limitations: the efficient selection of the most optimal candidate peptides and the use of a highly immunogenic platform to combine with the peptides to induce effective tumor-specific adaptive immune responses. Here, we describe for the first time a streamlined pipeline for the generation of personalized cancer vaccines starting from the isolation and selection of the most immunogenic peptide candidates expressed on the tumor cells and ending in the generation of efficient therapeutic oncolytic cancer vaccines. This immunopeptidomics-based pipeline was carefully validated in a murine colon tumor model CT26. Specifically, we used state-of-the-art immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric methodologies to isolate >8000 peptide targets from the CT26 tumor cell line. The selection of the target candidates was then based on two separate approaches: RNAseq analysis and the HEX software. The latter is a tool previously developed by Chiaro et al. (1), able to identify tumor antigens similar to pathogen antigens, in order to exploit molecular mimicry and tumor pathogen cross-reactive T-cells in cancer vaccine development. The generated list of candidates (twenty-six in total) was further tested in a functional characterization assay using interferon-g ELISpot (Enzyme-Linked Immunospot), reducing the number of candidates to six. These peptides were then tested in our previously described oncolytic cancer vaccine platform PeptiCRAd, a vaccine platform that combines an immunogenic oncolytic adenovirus (OAd) coated with tumor antigen peptides. In our work, PeptiCRAd was successfully used for the treatment of mice bearing CT26, controlling the primary malignant lesion and most importantly a secondary, non-treated, cancer lesion. These results confirmed the feasibility of applying the described pipeline for the selection of peptide candidates and generation of therapeutic oncolytic cancer vaccine, filling a gap in the field of cancer immunotherapy, and paving the way to translate our pipeline into human therapeutic approach.
The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD026463. The ligandome dataset is currently hidden but will be made public upon eventual acceptance of the current manuscript.Reviewer Account details for ligandome data accessing: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/login PXD026463Username: email@example.comPassword: oMUWIAw3
Noncoding regions are the main source of targetable tumor-specific antigensNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE111092.
Transcriptomics effects of ingestion of food additive titanium dioxide (E171) in the colon of BALB/c miceNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus,GSE92563.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal experiments were reviewed and approved by the Experimental Animal Committee of the University of Helsinki and the Provincial Government of Southern Finland (license number ESAVI/11895/2019).4-6 weeks old female Balb/cOlaHsd mice were obtained from Envigo (Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine UK).
- Ping-Chih Ho, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Switzerland
© 2022, Feola et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Characterizing the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage is crucial to understanding processes of tissue homeostasis vs. degeneration. In mouse models, however, limitations are imposed by their small joint size and thin cartilage surfaces. Here we present a 3D automated surface mapping system and methodology that allows for mechanical characterization of mouse cartilage with high spatial resolution. We performed repeated indentation mappings, followed by cartilage thickness measurement via needle probing, at 31 predefined positions distributed over the medial and lateral femoral condyles of healthy mice. High-resolution 3D x-ray microscopy (XRM) imaging was used to validate tissue thickness measurements. The automated indentation mapping was reproducible, and needle probing yielded cartilage thicknesses comparable to XRM imaging. When comparing healthy vs. degenerated cartilage, topographical variations in biomechanics were identified, with altered thickness and stiffness (instantaneous modulus) across condyles and within anteroposterior sub-regions. This quantitative technique comprehensively characterized cartilage function in mice femoral condyle cartilage. Hence, it has the potential to improve our understanding of tissue structure-function interplay in mouse models of repair and disease.
Sarcomas comprise approximately 1% of all human malignancies; treatment resistance is one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of sarcomas. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including miRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs, are important molecules involved in the crosstalk between resistance to chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiotherapy via various pathways.
We searched the PubMed (MEDLINE) database for articles regarding sarcoma-associated ncRNAs from inception to August 17, 2022. Studies investigating the roles of host-derived miRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs in sarcoma were included. Data relating to the roles of ncRNAs in therapeutic regulation and their applicability as biomarkers for predicting the therapeutic response of sarcomas were extracted. Two independent researchers assessed the quality of the studies using the Würzburg Methodological Quality Score (W-MeQS).
Observational studies revealed the ectopic expression of ncRNAs in sarcoma patients who had different responses to antitumor treatments. Experimental studies have confirmed crosstalk between cellular pathways pertinent to chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiotherapy resistance. Of the included studies, W-MeQS scores ranged from 3 to 10 (average score = 5.42). Of the 12 articles that investigated ncRNAs as biomarkers, none included a validation cohort. Selective reporting of the sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating curves was common.
Although ncRNAs appear to be good candidates as biomarkers for predicting treatment response and therapeutics for sarcoma, their differential expression across tissues complicates their application. Further research regarding their potential for inhibiting or activating these regulatory molecules to reverse treatment resistance may be useful.
This study’s literature retrieval was supported financially by the 345 Talent Project of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University (M0949 to Tao Zhang).