Infection is a major co-morbidity that contributes to impaired healing in diabetic wounds. Although impairments in diabetic neutrophils have been blamed for this co-morbidity, what causes these impairments and whether they can be overcome, remain largely unclear. Diabetic neutrophils, isolated from diabetic individuals, exhibit chemotaxis impairment but this peculiar functional impairment has been largely ignored because it appears to contradict the clinical findings which blame excessive neutrophil influx as a major impediment to healing in chronic diabetic ulcers. Here, we report that exposure to glucose in diabetic range results in impaired chemotaxis signaling through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) in neutrophils, culminating in reduced chemotaxis and delayed neutrophil trafficking in the wound of Leprdb (db/db) type 2 diabetic mice, rendering diabetic wound vulnerable to infection. We further show that at least some auxiliary receptors remain functional under diabetic conditions and their engagement by the pro-inflammatory cytokine CCL3, overrides the requirement for FPR signaling and substantially improves infection control by jumpstarting the neutrophil trafficking toward infection, and stimulates healing in diabetic wound. We posit that CCL3 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers if it is applied topically after the surgical debridement process which is intended to reset chronic ulcers into acute fresh wounds.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for western blots.
- Sasha H Shafikhani
- Sasha H Shafikhani
- Janet Zayas
- Janet Zayas
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: We have an approval from the Rush University Medical Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC No.: 18-037) to conduct research as indicated. All procedures complied strictly with the standards for care and use of animal subjects as stated in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Academy of Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA).
Human subjects: We have an Institutional Review Board (IRB)- approved protocol in accordance with the Common Rule (45CFR46, December 13, 2001) and any other governing regulations or subparts. This IRB-approved protocol allows us to collect blood samples from non-diabetic volunteers with their consents for these studies.
- Ursula Rescher, University of Muenster, Germany
© 2022, Roy et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Age-associated DNA methylation in blood cells convey information on health status. However, the mechanisms that drive these changes in circulating cells and their relationships to gene regulation are unknown. We identified age-associated DNA methylation sites in six purified blood-borne immune cell types (naive B, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, granulocytes, monocytes, and NK cells) collected from healthy individuals interspersed over a wide age range. Of the thousands of age-associated sites, only 350 sites were differentially methylated in the same direction in all cell types and validated in an independent longitudinal cohort. Genes close to age-associated hypomethylated sites were enriched for collagen biosynthesis and complement cascade pathways, while genes close to hypermethylated sites mapped to neuronal pathways. In silico analyses showed that in most cell types, the age-associated hypo- and hypermethylated sites were enriched for ARNT (HIF1β) and REST transcription factor (TF) motifs, respectively, which are both master regulators of hypoxia response. To conclude, despite spatial heterogeneity, there is a commonality in the putative regulatory role with respect to TF motifs and histone modifications at and around these sites. These features suggest that DNA methylation changes in healthy aging may be adaptive responses to fluctuations of oxygen availability.
Infection with Influenza A virus (IAV) causes the well-known symptoms of the flu, including fever, loss of appetite, and excessive sleepiness. These responses, mediated by the brain, will normally disappear once the virus is cleared from the system, but a severe respiratory virus infection may cause long-lasting neurological disturbances. These include encephalitis lethargica and narcolepsy. The mechanisms behind such long lasting changes are unknown. The hypothalamus is a central regulator of the homeostatic response during a viral challenge. To gain insight into the neuronal and non-neuronal molecular changes during an IAV infection, we intranasally infected mice with an H1N1 virus and extracted the brain at different time points. Using single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) of the hypothalamus, we identify transcriptional effects in all identified cell populations. The snRNA-seq data showed the most pronounced transcriptional response at 3 days past infection, with a strong downregulation of genes across all cell types. General immune processes were mainly impacted in microglia, the brain resident immune cells, where we found increased numbers of cells expressing pro-inflammatory gene networks. In addition, we found that most neuronal cell populations downregulated genes contributing to the energy homeostasis in mitochondria and protein translation in the cytosol, indicating potential reduced cellular and neuronal activity. This might be a preventive mechanism in neuronal cells to avoid intracellular viral replication and attack by phagocytosing cells. The change of microglia gene activity suggest that this is complemented by a shift in microglia activity to provide increased surveillance of their surroundings.