The innate immune system detects pathogens and initiates adaptive immune responses. Inflammasomes are central components of the innate immune system, but whether inflammasomes provide sufficient signals to activate adaptive immunity is unclear. In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), inflammasomes activate a lytic form of cell death called pyroptosis, leading to epithelial cell expulsion and the release of cytokines. Here we employed a genetic system to show that simultaneous antigen expression and inflammasome activation specifically in IECs is sufficient to activate CD8+ T cells. By genetic elimination of direct T cell priming by IECs, we found that IEC-derived antigens are cross-presented to CD8+ T cells. However, cross-presentation of IEC-derived antigen to CD8+ T cells only partially depended on IEC pyroptosis. In the absence of inflammasome activation, cross-priming of CD8+ T cells required Batf3+ dendritic cells (cDC1), whereas cross-priming in the presence of pyroptosis required a Zbtb26+ but Batf3-independent cDC population. These data suggest the existence of parallel pyroptosis-dependent and pyroptosis-independent pathways for cross-presentation of IEC-derived antigens.
Immunofluorescence images have been deposited in Dryad and can be found at https://doi.org/10.6078/D1ST46. All remaining data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files; Source Data files have been provided for Figures 1-6, Figure 3-figure supplement 1, Figure 4-figure supplement 1, Figure 5-figure supplement 1, Figure 5-figure supplement 4, Figure 6-figure supplement 2.
Data from: Inflammasome activation leads to cDC1-independent cross-priming of CD8 T cells by epithelial cell derived antigenDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.6078/D1ST46.
- Russell E Vance
- Russell E Vance
- Russell E Vance
- Russell E Vance
- Katherine A Deets
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. Animal studies were approved by the UC Berkeley Animal Care and Use Committee (current protocol number: AUP-2014-09-6665-2).
- Chyung-Ru Wang, Northwestern University, United States
© 2021, Deets et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-seq) allows for unbiased, proteome-wide autoantibody discovery across a variety of disease settings, with identification of disease-specific autoantigens providing new insight into previously poorly understood forms of immune dysregulation. Despite several successful implementations of PhIP-seq for autoantigen discovery, including our previous work (Vazquez et al., 2020), current protocols are inherently difficult to scale to accommodate large cohorts of cases and importantly, healthy controls. Here, we develop and validate a high throughput extension of PhIP-seq in various etiologies of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including APS1, IPEX, RAG1/2 deficiency, Kawasaki disease (KD), multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and finally, mild and severe forms of COVID-19. We demonstrate that these scaled datasets enable machine-learning approaches that result in robust prediction of disease status, as well as the ability to detect both known and novel autoantigens, such as prodynorphin (PDYN) in APS1 patients, and intestinally expressed proteins BEST4 and BTNL8 in IPEX patients. Remarkably, BEST4 antibodies were also found in two patients with RAG1/2 deficiency, one of whom had very early onset IBD. Scaled PhIP-seq examination of both MIS-C and KD demonstrated rare, overlapping antigens, including CGNL1, as well as several strongly enriched putative pneumonia-associated antigens in severe COVID-19, including the endosomal protein EEA1. Together, scaled PhIP-seq provides a valuable tool for broadly assessing both rare and common autoantigen overlap between autoimmune diseases of varying origins and etiologies.
Phagocyte oxidase plays an essential role in the first line of host defense against pathogens. It oxidizes intracellular NADPH to reduce extracellular oxygen to produce superoxide anions that participate in pathogen killing. The resting phagocyte oxidase is a heterodimeric complex formed by two transmembrane proteins NOX2 and p22. Despite the physiological importance of this complex, its structure remains elusive. Here, we reported the cryo-EM structure of the functional human NOX2-p22 complex in nanodisc in the resting state. NOX2 shows a canonical 6-TM architecture of NOX and p22 has four transmembrane helices. M3, M4, and M5 of NOX2, and M1 and M4 helices of p22 are involved in the heterodimer formation. Dehydrogenase (DH) domain of NOX2 in the resting state is not optimally docked onto the transmembrane domain, leading to inefficient electron transfer and NADPH binding. Structural analysis suggests that the cytosolic factors might activate the NOX2-p22 complex by stabilizing the DH in a productive docked conformation.