Myxococcus xanthus, a soil bacterium, predates collectively using motility to invade prey colonies. Prey lysis is mostly thought to rely on secreted factors, cocktails of antibiotics and enzymes, and direct contac with Myxococcus cells. In this study, we show that on surfaces the coupling of A-motility and contact-dependent killing is the central predatory mechanism driving effective prey colony invasion and consumption. At the molecular level, contact-dependent killing involves a newly discovered type IV filament-like machinery (Kil) that both promotes motility arrest and prey cell plasmolysis. In this process, Kil proteins assemble at the predator-prey contact site, suggesting that they allow tight contact with prey cells for their intoxication. Kil-like systems form a new class of Tad-like machineries in predatory bacteria, suggesting a conserved function in predator-prey interactions. This study further reveals a novel cell-cell interaction function for bacterial pili-like assemblages.
Source Data files have been provided for :- Figure 2-source data 1: E. coli loss of fluorescence during contact-dependent lysis (Figure 2c).- Figure 2-figure supplement 5-source data 1: Contact dependent-lysis and VipA-GFP dynamics.- Figure 2-figure supplement 7-source data 1: CPRG assay.- Figure 3-source data 1: CPRG assay (Figure 3b).- Figure 3-source data 2: counting percentage of contacts with a prey leading to motility pauses and prey cell lysis (Figure 3c, 3d).- Figure 3-figure supplement 3-source data 1: CPRG assay.- Figure 4-source data 1: counting percentage of contacts with a prey leading to NG-KilD foci formation and counting percentage of NG-KilD foci associated with motility pause and prey cell lysis (Figure 4e, 4f, 4g).- Figure 4-figure supplement 1-source data 1: CPRG assay.- Figure 4-figure supplement 2-source data 1: CPRG assay.- Figure 4-figure supplement 3-source data 1: Lysis time.- Figure 4-figure supplement 4-source data 1: Western Blot.- Figure 5-source data 1: Flow cytometry (Figure 5c, 5d).- Figure 5-source data 2: M. xanthus growth during prey colony invasion (Figure 5e).- Figure 5-source data 3: Increase in M. xanthus cell length during predation (Figure 5f).- Figure 5-figure supplement 2-source data 1: Growth curves.- Figure 6-source data 1: Prey CFU counts during predation (Figure 6b,c,d,e,f).- Figure 7-source data 1: Supermatrix alignment.- Figure 3-figure supplement 2: RNA-seq Data from Livingstone PG et al. (2018) Microb Genom. PMID:29345219, Supplementary File 1 available online: https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/mgen/10.1099/mgen.0.000152#supplementary_data).
unmapped read dataNCBI SRA, PRJNA408275.
- Tâm Mignot
- Sofiene Seef
- Paul de Boissier
- Donovan Robert
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Michael T Laub, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
© 2021, Seef et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Pyroptosis and apoptosis are two forms of regulated cell death that can defend against intracellular infection. When a cell fails to complete pyroptosis, backup pathways will initiate apoptosis. Here, we investigated the utility of apoptosis compared to pyroptosis in defense against an intracellular bacterial infection. We previously engineered Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to persistently express flagellin, and thereby activate NLRC4 during systemic infection in mice. The resulting pyroptosis clears this flagellin-engineered strain. We now show that infection of caspase-1 or gasdermin D deficient macrophages by this flagellin-engineered S. Typhimurium induces apoptosis in vitro. Additionally, we engineered S. Typhimurium to translocate the pro-apoptotic BH3 domain of BID, which also triggers apoptosis in macrophages in vitro. During mouse infection, the apoptotic pathway successfully cleared these engineered S. Typhimurium from the intestinal niche but failed to clear the bacteria from the myeloid niche in the spleen or lymph nodes. In contrast, the pyroptotic pathway was beneficial in defense of both niches. To clear an infection, cells may have specific tasks that they must complete before they die; different modes of cell death could initiate these ‘bucket lists’ in either convergent or divergent ways.
SARS-CoV-2 spike protein plays a key role in mediating viral entry and inducing host immune responses. It can adopt either an open or closed conformation based on the position of its receptor-binding domain (RBD). It is yet unclear what causes these conformational changes or how they influence the spike’s functions. Here, we show that Lys417 in the RBD plays dual roles in the spike’s structure: it stabilizes the closed conformation of the trimeric spike by mediating inter-spike–subunit interactions; it also directly interacts with ACE2 receptor. Hence, a K417V mutation has opposing effects on the spike’s function: it opens up the spike for better ACE2 binding while weakening the RBD’s direct binding to ACE2. The net outcomes of this mutation are to allow the spike to bind ACE2 with higher probability and mediate viral entry more efficiently, but become more exposed to neutralizing antibodies. Given that residue 417 has been a viral mutational hotspot, SARS-CoV-2 may have been evolving to strike a balance between infection potency and immune evasion, contributing to its pandemic spread.