Complementary actions of the neocortex and the hippocampus enable encoding and long-term storage of experience dependent memories. Standard models for memory storage assume that sensory signals reach the hippocampus from superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex (EC). Deep layers of the EC on the other hand relay hippocampal outputs to the telencephalic structures including many parts of the neocortex. Here we show that cells in Layer 5a of the medial EC send a copy of their telencephalic outputs back to the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Combining cell-type specific anatomical tracing with high-throughput RNA-sequencing based projection mapping and optogenetics aided circuit mapping, we show that in the mouse brain these projections have a unique topography and target hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons. Our results suggest that projections of deep medial EC neurons are anatomically configured to influence the hippocampus and neocortex simultaneously and therefore lead to novel hypotheses on the functional role of the deep EC.
On publication data and analysis scripts will be made publicly available via University of Edinburgh's Datashare service (http://datashare.is.ed.ac.uk/). This is an online data repository maintained by the University. MAPseq data will be made available at NLM Sequence Read Archive BioProject.
- Gulsen Surmeli
- Gulsen Surmeli
- Christina McClure
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal experiments were approved by the University of Edinburgh animal welfarecommittee and were performed under a UK Home Office project license.
- Lisa Giocomo, Stanford School of Medicine, United States
© 2022, Tsoi et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Previously, we developed a novel model for anxiety during motivated behavior by training rats to perform a task where actions executed to obtain a reward were probabilistically punished and observed that after learning, neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) represent the relationship between action and punishment risk (Park and Moghaddam, 2017). Here, we used male and female rats to expand on the previous work by focusing on neural changes in the dmPFC and VTA that were associated with the learning of probabilistic punishment, and anxiolytic treatment with diazepam after learning. We find that adaptive neural responses of dmPFC and VTA during the learning of anxiogenic contingencies are independent from the punisher experience and occur primarily during the peri-action and reward period. Our results also identify peri-action ramping of VTA neural calcium activity, and VTA-dmPFC correlated activity, as potential markers for the anxiolytic properties of diazepam.
Repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is a transcriptional repressor that recognizes neuron-restrictive silencer elements in the mammalian genomes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner. The identity of REST target genes and molecular details of how REST regulates them are emerging. We performed conditional null deletion of Rest (cKO), mainly restricted to murine hair cells (HCs) and auditory neurons (aka spiral ganglion neurons [SGNs]). Null inactivation of full-length REST did not affect the development of normal HCs and SGNs but manifested as progressive hearing loss in adult mice. We found that the inactivation of REST resulted in an increased abundance of Kv7.4 channels at the transcript, protein, and functional levels. Specifically, we found that SGNs and HCs from Rest cKO mice displayed increased Kv7.4 expression and augmented Kv7 currents; SGN’s excitability was also significantly reduced. Administration of a compound with Kv7.4 channel activator activity, fasudil, recapitulated progressive hearing loss in mice. In contrast, inhibition of the Kv7 channels by XE991 rescued the auditory phenotype of Rest cKO mice. Previous studies identified some loss-of-function mutations within the Kv7.4-coding gene, Kcnq4, as a causative factor for progressive hearing loss in mice and humans. Thus, the findings reveal that a critical homeostatic Kv7.4 channel level is required for proper auditory functions.