Under starvation conditions, bacteria tend to slow down their translation rate by reducing rRNA synthesis, but the way they accomplish that may vary in different bacteria. In Mycobacterium species, transcription of rRNA is activated by the RNA polymerase (RNAP) accessory transcription factor CarD, which interacts directly with RNAP to stabilize the RNAP-promoter open complex formed on rRNA genes. The functions of CarD have been extensively studied, but the mechanisms that control its expression remain obscure. Here, we report that the level of CarD was tightly regulated when mycobacterial cells switched from nutrient-rich to nutrient-deprived conditions. At the translational level, an antisense RNA of carD (AscarD) was induced in a SigF-dependent manner to bind with carD mRNA and inhibit CarD translation, while at the post-translational level, the residual intracellular CarD was quickly degraded by the Clp protease. AscarD thus worked synergistically with Clp protease to decrease the CarD level to help mycobacterial cells cope with the nutritional stress. Altogether, our work elucidates the regulation mode of CarD and delineates a new mechanism for the mycobacterial starvation response, which is important for the adaptation and persistence of mycobacterial pathogens in the host environment.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting file; Source Data files have been provided for Figures 1, 4, 5 and 6. These Source Data contain the numerical data used to generate the figures.
- Jin He
- Qing Tang
- Jin He
- Jin He
- Xinfeng Li
- Michael Y Galperin
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Bavesh D Kana, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Experiments involving periodic stimuli shed light on the interplay between hyper-osmotic stress and glucose starvation in yeast cells.
The dynamic interplay between guanine-quadruplex (G4) structures and pathogenicity islands (PAIs) represents a captivating area of research with implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity. This study conducted a comprehensive analysis of a large-scale dataset from reported 89 pathogenic strains of bacteria to investigate the potential interactions between G4 structures and PAIs. G4 structures exhibited an uneven and non-random distribution within the PAIs and were consistently conserved within the same pathogenic strains. Additionally, this investigation identified positive correlations between the number and frequency of G4 structures and the GC content across different genomic features, including the genome, promoters, genes, tRNA, and rRNA regions, indicating a potential relationship between G4 structures and the GC-associated regions of the genome. The observed differences in GC content between PAIs and the core genome further highlight the unique nature of PAIs and underlying factors, such as DNA topology. High-confidence G4 structures within regulatory regions of Escherichia coli were identified, modulating the efficiency or specificity of DNA integration events within PAIs. Collectively, these findings pave the way for future research to unravel the intricate molecular mechanisms and functional implications of G4-PAI interactions, thereby advancing our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and the role of G4 structures in pathogenic diseases.