The phosphorylation-activated anion channel CFTR is gated by an ATP hydrolysis cycle at its two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains, and is essential for epithelial salt-water transport. A large number of CFTR mutations cause cystic fibrosis. Since recent breakthrough in targeted pharmacotherapy, CFTR mutants with impaired gating are candidates for stimulation by potentiator drugs. Thus, understanding the molecular pathology of individual mutations has become important. The relatively common R117H mutation affects an extracellular loop, but nevertheless causes a strong gating defect. Here we identify a hydrogen bond between the side chain of arginine 117 and the backbone carbonyl group of glutamate 1124 in the cryo-electronmicroscopic structure of phosphorylated, ATP-bound CFTR. We address the functional relevance of that interaction for CFTR gating using macroscopic and microscopic inside-out patch-clamp recordings. Employing thermodynamic double-mutant cycles, we systematically track gating-state dependent changes in the strength of the R117-E1124 interaction. We find that the H-bond is formed only in the open state, but neither in the short-lived "flickery" nor in the long-lived 'interburst' closed state. Loss of this H-bond explains the strong gating phenotype of the R117H mutant, including robustly shortened burst durations and strongly reduced intraburst open probability. The findings may help targeted potentiator design.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the main text figures, tables, and supporting figures.
- László Csanády
- László Csanády
- László Csanády
- Márton A Simon
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of Semmelweis University (last approved 06-03-2021, expiration 06-03-2026).
- Andrés Jara-Oseguera, The University of Texas at Austin, United States
© 2021, Simon & Csanády
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Structures of the human lysosomal K+ channel transmembrane protein 175 (TMEM175) in open and closed states revealed a novel architecture lacking the canonical K+ selectivity filter motif present in previously known K+ channel structures. A hydrophobic constriction composed of four isoleucine residues was resolved in the pore and proposed to serve as the gate in the closed state, and to confer ion selectivity in the open state. Here, we achieve higher-resolution structures of the open and closed states and employ molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the conducting properties of the putative open state, demonstrating that it is permeable to K+ and, to a lesser degree, also Na+. Both cations must dehydrate significantly to penetrate the narrow hydrophobic constriction, but ion flow is assisted by a favorable electrostatic field generated by the protein that spans the length of the pore. The balance of these opposing energetic factors explains why permeation is feasible, and why TMEM175 is selective for K+ over Na+, despite the absence of the canonical selectivity filter. Accordingly, mutagenesis experiments reveal an exquisite sensitivity of the channel to perturbations that mitigate the constriction. Together, these data reveal a novel mechanism for selective permeation of ions by TMEM175 that is unlike that of other K+ channels.
Phosphorylation and acetylation of sarcomeric proteins are important for fine-tuning myocardial contractility. Here, we used bottom-up proteomics and label-free quantification to identify novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) on β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) in normal and failing human heart tissues. We report six acetylated lysines and two phosphorylated residues: K34-Ac, K58-Ac, S210-P, K213-Ac, T215-P, K429-Ac, K951-Ac, and K1195-Ac. K951-Ac was significantly reduced in both ischemic and nonischemic failing hearts compared to nondiseased hearts. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that K951-Ac may impact stability of thick filament tail interactions and ultimately myosin head positioning. K58-Ac altered the solvent-exposed SH3 domain surface – known for protein–protein interactions – but did not appreciably change motor domain conformation or dynamics under conditions studied. Together, K213-Ac/T215-P altered loop 1’s structure and dynamics – known to regulate ADP-release, ATPase activity, and sliding velocity. Our study suggests that β-MHC acetylation levels may be influenced more by the PTM location than the type of heart disease since less protected acetylation sites are reduced in both heart failure groups. Additionally, these PTMs have potential to modulate interactions between β-MHC and other regulatory sarcomeric proteins, ADP-release rate of myosin, flexibility of the S2 region, and cardiac myofilament contractility in normal and failing hearts.