(a) The age-independent local gradient map obtained by averaging all age-related local gradient maps. (b) The age-independent parcellation map obtained by applying the watershed algorithm on the age-independent local gradient map and manually removing 39 over-segmented regions, resulting in 860 cortical parcels, with 430 parcels in each hemisphere. (c) Our age-independent parcellation shows significantly lower variance compared to the null parcellations. (d) Our age-independent parcellation shows significantly higher homogeneity compared to null parcellations. (e) The histogram of parcel size, where parcel sizes are counted in vertices. (f) Some parcels correspond to known cortical areas defined by multimodal features in adults (Glasser et al., 2016). (g) The quantitative comparison between our parcellation and 1000 null parcellations with the Human Connectome Project (HCP) parcellation, including Brodmann’s area 2, 3b, 4 + 3a, 44 + 45, V1, and MT + MST, using Hausdorff distance on the spherical space (in mm). For each circle in (c), (d), and (g), the y coordinate represents its corresponding variance, homogeneity, or Hausdorff distance, and the x coordinate is set to an integer between 1 and 50 in sequence for the purpose of visualization.