(A) Odor-sound association task structure. Three days of odor-sound training beginning at the end of the prior five-odor task training were conducted. Odors 1 and 5 associated with the strongest aversive and rewarding outcomes from previously learned five-odor task were preserved and two sound tones (5 and 12 kHz) were introduced with matching outcomes. Sound tone–outcome assignments were counterbalanced across mice. On day 4, a probe session was conducted as previously in which mice were sated prior to the second block. In the second block, mice did not exhibit licking and all outcomes were omitted. (B) Anticipatory licking of mice across three training days. By day 2, mice exhibit similar levels of anticipatory licking in response to the rewarded sound tone as to the rewarded odor (n=10 mice). (C) D1 neuronal population activity in Block 2 of day 4, in response to the learned odors and sound tones, and in the absence of licking, airpuffs, or water delivery. Neurons are grouped by preferred stimulus, arrows on right indicate boundaries between groups. Unlike in Figure 4C, distinct sets of D1 neurons are activated in response to odors and sound tones associated with identical outcomes. (D) Overlap in neurons responding to stimuli predicting similar aversive (orange) and rewarding (green) outcomes in the sated condition in the odor-odor task (top) and odor-sound task (bottom). Top orange, numbers of neurons in Block 2 of the odor-odor task that were activated in response to either aversive odor 1, aversive odor 2, or both of them (overlap), with % overlap indicated below. Top green, same for rewarding odors 5 and 4. Bottom, same for Block 2 of the odor-sound task (sounds in dashed lines). (E) Orange, mean activity of odor 1 activated neurons to the corresponding matched valence odor stimulus in Block 2 of the odor-odor (OO) task and matched valence sound stimulus in Block 2 of the odor-sound (OS) task (n=50 and 101 neurons). Green, same for odor 5 responsive neurons (n=100 and 134). (F) Distributions of valence scores of D1 neurons in the odor-odor task and odor-sound task in the full task condition with licking and outcomes. Shuffle control distributions are also shown as lines. (G) Same for stimulus-only condition in Block 2. (H) Principal components of D1 neuronal population activity in Blocks 1 and 2 in odor-odor task. (I) Same for odor-sound task. (J) Cosine similarity in the neuronal trajectories of stimulus responsive neuronal groups in the odor-odor task as compared to the odor-sound task in same valence vs. opposite valence stimulus pairs (four neuronal subgroups as in C with pairwise comparisons, *p<0.05 rank sum test).