Sensory systems are often tasked to analyse complex signals from the environment, separating relevant from irrelevant parts. This process of decomposing signals is challenging when a mixture of signals does not equal the sum of its parts, leading to an unpredictable corruption of signal patterns. In olfaction, nonlinear summation is prevalent at various stages of sensory processing. Here, we investigate how the olfactory system deals with binary mixtures of odours under different brain states, using two-photon imaging of olfactory bulb (OB) output neurons. Unlike previous studies using anaesthetised animals, we found that mixture summation is more linear in the early phase of evoked responses in awake, head-fixed mice performing an odour detection task, due to dampened responses. Despite this, and responses being more variable, decoding analyses indicated that the data from behaving mice was well discriminable. Curiously, the time course of decoding accuracy did not correlate strictly with the linearity of summation. Further, a comparison with naïve mice indicated that learning to accurately perform the mixture detection task is not accompanied by more linear mixture summation. Finally, using a simulation, we demonstrate that, while saturating sublinearity tends to degrade the discriminability, the extent of the impairment may depend on other factors, including pattern decorrelation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the mixture representation in the primary olfactory area is state-dependent, but the analytical perception may not strictly correlate with linearity in summation.
The files consist of individual data to compare linear sum vs. observed mixture responses (300 - 1000 ms after odour onset).
Figure 6CDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.p2ngf1vrh.
- Aliya Mari Adefuin
- Sander Lindeman
- Janine K Reinert
- Izumi Fukunaga
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All procedures described in this study have been approved by the OIST Graduate University's Animal Care and Use Committee (Protocol 2016-151 and 2020-310)
- Naoshige Uchida, Harvard University, United States
© 2022, Adefuin et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Connections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulate memory and emotion and become disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders. The diverse roles attributed to interactions between the BLA and PFC may reflect multiple circuits nested within a wider network. To examine these circuits, we first used retrograde and anterograde anatomy to show that the rostral BLA (rBLA) and caudal BLA (cBLA) differentially project to prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subregions of the mouse PFC. Using ex vivo whole-cell recordings and optogenetics, we then assessed which neuronal subtypes are targeted, showing that rBLA preferentially drives layer 2 (L2) cortico-amygdalar (CA) neurons in PL, whereas cBLA drives layer 5 (L5) pyramidal tract (PT) neurons in IL. We next combined in vivo silicon probe recordings and optogenetics to confirm that cBLA mainly influences IL L5, whereas rBLA primarily activates PL L2, but also evokes polysynaptic activity in PL L5. Lastly, we used soma-tagged optogenetics to explore the local circuits linking superficial and deep layers of PL, showing how rBLA can engage L2 CA neurons to impact L5 PT neuron activity. Together, our findings delineate how subregions of the BLA target distinct networks within the PFC and differentially influence output from PL and IL.
Axon degeneration contributes to the disruption of neuronal circuit function in diseased and injured nervous systems. Severed axons degenerate following the activation of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway, which culminates in the activation of SARM1 in mammals to execute the pathological depletion of the metabolite NAD+. SARM1 NADase activity is activated by the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). In mammals, keeping NMN levels low potently preserves axons after injury. However, it remains unclear whether NMN is also a key mediator of axon degeneration and dSarm activation in flies. Here, we demonstrate that lowering NMN levels in Drosophila through the expression of a newly generated prokaryotic NMN-Deamidase (NMN-D) preserves severed axons for months and keeps them circuit-integrated for weeks. NMN-D alters the NAD+ metabolic flux by lowering NMN, while NAD+ remains unchanged in vivo. Increased NMN synthesis, by the expression of mouse nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (mNAMPT), leads to faster axon degeneration after injury. We also show that NMN-induced activation of dSarm mediates axon degeneration in vivo. Finally, NMN-D delays neurodegeneration caused by loss of the sole NMN-consuming and NAD+-synthesizing enzyme dNmnat. Our results reveal a critical role for NMN in neurodegeneration in the fly, which extends beyond axonal injury. The potent neuroprotection by reducing NMN levels is similar to the interference with other essential mediators of axon degeneration in Drosophila.