(A) Example trial procedure in Experiment 1: The saccade target and foveal probe were embedded in full-screen noise images flickering at a frequency of 20 Hz (image duration of 50ms). After 200ms, the saccade target (an orientation-filtered patch; filtered to either –45° or +45°; 3 dva in diameter) appeared 10 dva to the left or the right of the screen center, cueing the eye movement. On 50% of trials, a probe (a second orientation-filtered patch; filtered to either –45° or +45°) appeared in the screen center either 150ms before target onset (top panel; highlighted element with grey outline), or at an early (dark blue outline), medium (light blue outline) or late (green outline) stage of saccade preparation. The foveal probe was presented for 50ms and could be oriented either congruently or incongruently to the target. On Pre trials, the saccade target disappeared before saccade landing. On Pre-Post trials, it remained visible for a brief duration after landing. Observers reported if they had perceived the probe in the screen center or not (present vs absent). After a ‘present’ response, they reported the probe’s perceived orientation (left for –45° vs right for +45°). (B) Noise properties: Power spectral density (PSD) of the foveal region (3 dva diameter) of all noise images presented in a randomly chosen experimental session. (C) Probe timing: histogram of time intervals between probe offset and saccade onset. Bar heights and error bars indicate the mean and standard error of the mean (SEM; n=7) across observers, respectively. On baseline trials, the probe appeared before target onset (dark grey bars). On all remaining trials, the probe appeared after target onset and therefore during saccade preparation (Sac prep). We assigned saccade preparation trials to five distinct time bins (from dark blue to light green). Trials in which the probe disappeared more than 250ms before saccade onset (light grey), during the saccade (yellow) or after saccade offset (orange) were excluded. The yellow background rectangle illustrates the median saccade duration. (D) Observers were able to select the peripheral stimulus as the saccade target: Bivariate Gaussian Kernel densities of saccade landing coordinates for left- and rightwards saccades. Filled circles indicate the saccade target (rad = 1.5 dva). Transparent circles indicate the accepted landing area (rad = 3.25 dva). The distance between the screen center and the targets was reduced for illustration purposes. Red bars on top indicate median saccade amplitudes based on both the horizontal and vertical component of the saccade. Neither saccade latencies nor saccade endpoints influenced congruency effects (see Materials and methods).