The original data points are on the true curve. The leftmost data point is changed from 0.005 to 1e-6, referring to a small white noise that cannot be visually recognized. The change leads to the obvious departure between the estimated curve by linear regression model (dotted) and the true curve (solid), which demonstrates that standard regression is sensitive to extreme values. The response at the true IC50 (dotdashed, vertical, left) is only 22% from the estimated curve; the estimated IC50 (dotdashed, vertical, right) corresponds to the 70% fraction of cell affected, effecting a substantive 20% inflation (50% ->70%) in estimation error. In contrast, the estimated curve by beta regression model (dashed) is almost overlapped with the true curve (solid), which shows that BRM is much more robust to extreme values. LRM: linear regression model; BRM: robust beta regression model. Detailed model descriptions of LRM and BRM are provided in Materials and methods section.