Background: Metabolic syndrome–associated osteoarthritis (MetS-OA) is a distinct osteoarthritis phenotype defined by the coexistence of MetS or its individual components. Despite the high prevalence of MetS-OA, its pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cellular senescence in the development of MetS-OA.
Methods: Analysis of the human osteoarthritis initiative (OAI) dataset was conducted to investigate the MRI subchondral bone features of MetS-human OA participants. Joint phenotype and senescent cells were evaluated in two MetS-OA mouse models: high-fat diet (HFD)-challenged mice and STR/Ort mice. In addition, the molecular mechanisms by which preosteoclasts become senescent as well as how the senescent preosteoclasts impair subchondral bone microenvironment were characterized using in vitro preosteoclast culture system.
Results: Humans and mice with MetS are more likely to develop osteoarthritis-related subchondral bone alterations than those without MetS. MetS-OA mice exhibited a rapid increase in joint subchondral bone plate and trabecular thickness before articular cartilage degeneration. Subchondral preosteoclasts undergo senescence at the pre- or early-osteoarthritis stage and acquire a unique secretome to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation. Antagonizing preosteoclast senescence markedly mitigates pathological subchondral alterations and osteoarthritis progression in MetS-OA mice. At the molecular level, preosteoclast secretome activates COX2-PGE2, resulting in stimulated differentiation of osteoblast progenitors for subchondral bone formation. Administration of a selective COX2 inhibitor attenuated subchondral bone alteration and osteoarthritis progression in MetS-OA mice. Longitudinal analyses of the human Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort dataset also revealed that COX2 inhibitor use, relative to non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, is associated with less progression of osteoarthritis and subchondral bone marrow lesion worsening in participants with MetS-OA.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest a central role of a senescent preosteoclast secretome-COX2/PGE2 axis in the pathogenesis of MetS-OA, in which selective COX2 inhibitors may have disease-modifying potential.
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grant R01AG068226 and R01AG072090 to M.W., R01AR079620 to S.D., and P01AG066603 to X.C.
The data that support the findings of this study are available within the article and Supplementary file. Sequencing data have been deposited in Dryad and can be acquired through online portal at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.q2bvq83n6. The naming and version of OAI dataset files used in our study are listed in Supplementary file 1C and can be acquired through OAI online portal at https://nda.nih.gov/oai.
Senescent preosteoclast secretome promotes metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis through COX2-PGE2Dryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.q2bvq83n6.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: We used data from the longitudinal multi-center OAI study (2004-2015 clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00080171). All 4,796 enrolled patients gave written informed consent. Institutional review boards of four OAI collaborating centers have approved the OAI study's Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol (approval number: FWA00000068).
- Mone Zaidi, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States
© 2022, Su et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Background: Notch signaling dictates cell fate decisions in mammalian cells including megakaryocytes. Existence of functional Notch signaling in enucleate platelets remains elusive.
Methods: Transcripts/peptides of Notch1 and Delta-like ligand (DLL)-4 were detected in platelets isolated from human blood by RT-qPCR, Western analysis and flow cytometry. Platelet aggregation, granule secretion and platelet-leucocyte interaction were analyzed by lumi-aggregometry and flow cytometry. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles were documented with Nanoparticle Tracking Analyzer. Platelet thrombus on immobilized collagen was quantified using microfluidics platform. Intracellular calcium was monitored by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Whole blood coagulation was studied by thromboelastography. Ferric chloride-induced mouse mesenteric arteriolar thrombosis was imaged by intravital microscopy.
Results: We demonstrate expression of Notch1, its ligand DLL-4 and their respective transcripts in human platelets. Synthesis and surface translocation of Notch1 and DLL-4 were upregulated by thrombin. DLL-4, in turn, instigated neighbouring platelets to switch to 'activated' phenotype through cleavage of Notch receptor and release of its intracellular domain (NICD), which was averted by inhibition of γ-secretase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Inhibition of Notch signaling, too, restrained agonist-induced platelet activation, and significantly impaired arterial thrombosis in mice. Strikingly, prevention of DLL-4-Notch1 interaction by a blocking antibody abolished platelet aggregation and extracellular vesicle shedding induced by thrombin.
Conclusions: Our study presents compelling evidence in support of non-canonical juxtacrine Notch signaling within platelet aggregates that synergizes with physiological agonists to generate occlusive intramural thrombi. Thus, Notch pathway can be a potential anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic therapeutic target.
Funding: Research was supported by grants received by DD from JC Bose Fellowship (JCB/2017/000029), ICMR (71/4/2018-BMS/CAR), DBT (BT/PR-20645/BRB/10/1541/2016) and SERB (EMR/2015/000583). SNC, ME and VS are recipients of ICMR-Scientist-C, CSIR-SRF and UGC-SRF support, respectively. Funders had no role in design, analysis and reporting of study.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) affects myofibers and muscle stem cells, causing progressive muscle degeneration and repair defects. It was unknown whether dystrophic myoblasts—the effector cells of muscle growth and regeneration—are affected. Using transcriptomic, genome-scale metabolic modelling and functional analyses, we demonstrate, for the first time, convergent abnormalities in primary mouse and human dystrophic myoblasts. In Dmdmdx myoblasts lacking full-length dystrophin, the expression of 170 genes was significantly altered. Myod1 and key genes controlled by MyoD (Myog, Mymk, Mymx, epigenetic regulators, ECM interactors, calcium signalling and fibrosis genes) were significantly downregulated. Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment in genes involved in muscle development and function. Functionally, we found increased myoblast proliferation, reduced chemotaxis and accelerated differentiation, which are all essential for myoregeneration. The defects were caused by the loss of expression of full-length dystrophin, as similar and not exacerbated alterations were observed in dystrophin-null Dmdmdx-βgeo myoblasts. Corresponding abnormalities were identified in human DMD primary myoblasts and a dystrophic mouse muscle cell line, confirming the cross-species and cell-autonomous nature of these defects. The genome-scale metabolic analysis in human DMD myoblasts showed alterations in the rate of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, leukotriene metabolism, and mitochondrial beta-oxidation of various fatty acids. These results reveal the disease continuum: DMD defects in satellite cells, the myoblast dysfunction affecting muscle regeneration, which is insufficient to counteract muscle loss due to myofiber instability. Contrary to the established belief, our data demonstrate that DMD abnormalities occur in myoblasts, making these cells a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of this lethal disease.