Here, we illustrate three models with gradually increasing complexity. (a) In the classic tragedy of the commons, individuals can choose to invest resources into reproduction () or group productivity (cooperation; ). (b) In the non-suppression model, individuals can also manipulate others (), to make them invest more in group productivity. (c) In the model with suppression, individuals can also suppress (block) the manipulation by others (). Within each model, arrows indicate manipulation, the blockings indicate suppression, and the outcome of the two actions are expressed below the arrows. The fitness of an individual is divided into two components: group productivity and share of group productivity, both shown at the bottom of the figure.