(A, B) Perceptual recalibration in two example sessions, with (A) Δ+ (vestibular and visual headings offset to the right and left, respectively; monkey D, session #10) and (B) Δ− (vestibular and visual headings offset to the left and right, respectively; monkey D, session #48). Psychometric curves (cumulative Gaussian distribution functions) were fitted to the data (circles), and represent the proportion of rightward choices, as a function of stimulus heading direction. Pre-recalibration heading judgments are depicted by black curves, in the left and right columns for vestibular and visual cues, respectively. After recalibration, vestibular and visual curves (blue and red, respectively) were shifted in relation to the pre-calibration curves. (C) Blue and red histograms represent the distributions of the point of subjective equality (PSE) shifts (post-recalibration minus pre-recalibration PSE) for vestibular and visual cues, respectively. Histograms above and below the abscissa represent sessions with Δ+ and Δ−, respectively. Inverted triangles (▼) and upright triangles (▲) with error bars represent mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) shifts for sessions with Δ+ and Δ−, respectively. The numbers on the plots represent the mean PSE shifts. Asterisk symbols indicate significant shifts (p < 0.05). For the vestibular cue, p = 2.3 × 10−17, N = 241 sessions (Δ+ condition), and p = 1.0 × 10−28, N = 227 sessions (Δ− condition), paired t-test. For the visual cue, p = 6.5 × 10−11 (Δ+ condition), and p = 5.4 × 10−23 (Δ− condition), paired t-test. Summary statistics for the individual animals are presented in Figure 2—source data 1.