(A) Breeding distribution map and sampling localities of each Numenius species (BirdLife International and Handbook of the Birds of the World, 2017; Lappo et al., 2012); wintering and migratory ranges are not shown. Colors correspond to species identities in (B). Diagonal lines denote regions with co-distributed species. Each circle represents one sample unless otherwise specified by an adjacent number. The only known breeding records of N. tenuirostris were from near the village of Krasnoperova c.10 km south of Tara, Omsk (Russia), which is denoted by a black star (★), although this might not have been the core breeding area. (B) Phylogenomic tree constructed from an alignment of 514,771 bp across 524 sequence loci. Tree topology (including bootstrap support values) and divergence times were estimated with MP-EST and MCMCTree, respectively. Only bootstrap <100 is displayed. Sample sizes for each species are given in brackets. IUCN Red List status of critically endangered (CR) and endangered (EN) species is indicated. (C) Results of demographic history reconstruction using stairway plot for selected species displayed with key climatic, biotic, and anthropogenic events. Effective population size: Line colors correspond to species identities in the tree in (B) and numbers at present time represent present-day effective population sizes. Thick lines represent the median effective population size while thin lines represent the 2.5 and 97.5 percentile estimations. The vertical gray line denotes the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and panels are shaded to aid reference to the time axis. Suitable breeding area: predicted suitable breeding area at LGM (22,000 years ago), mid-Holocene (6,000 years ago), and present-day (1960–1990) using Maxent. Dot colors correspond to species identities in the tree in (B). Dotted lines connecting the dots are for visualization purposes and do not represent fluctuations in the breeding area. The following panels display the timings of key climatic, biotic and anthropogenic events, including megafaunal extinction (in terms of the number of extinct genera with dotted shading denoting uncertainty in estimates; Koch and Barnosky, 2006), agricultural land use, and human population size (HYDE 3.2; Klein Goldewijk et al., 2017; Klein Goldewijk et al., 2010). Line type corresponds to geographical area (Nearctic versus Palaearctic) as denoted in the ‘Human population size’ panel.
© 2023, Lynx Edicions. Illustrations of Numenius birds in Figure 1B were reproduced with permission from Lynx Edicions. The illustrations are not covered by a CC-BY 4.0 license and further reproduction of this panel would need permission from the copyright holder.