Subcortical auditory regions are exhibited as red areas in the schematic diagrams and dotted lines in T1w images and st-DEC-TDI maps. All images are in the axial plane. Schematic diagrams for the CN, SOC, and IC were redrawn from Moore, 1987 and for the MGB from Duvernoys Atlas of the Human Brain Stem and Cerebellum (2009). Group-level segmentation was performed in the study-specific template averaged from all 10 normal-hearing controls. Images from one normal hearing control (male, 32 months old) and one profound SNHL patient (male, 32 months old) were selected to show individual-level segmentation. CN, cochlear nucleus; ICP, inferior cerebellar peduncle; PBB, ponto bulbar body; VSN, trigeminal spinal nucleus; VST, trigeminal spinal tract; IO, inferior olive; SOC, superior olivary complex; ML, medial lemniscus; MCP, medial cerebellar peduncle; IC, inferior colliculus; CIC, commissure of IC; LL, lateral lemniscus; PAG, periaqueductal grey; MGB, medial geniculate body; LGB, lateral geniculate body; SC, superior colliculus; RN, red nucleus; SN, substantia nigra; CST, corticospinal tract; St-DEC-TDI, short-tracks directionally encoded colour track density imaging; SNHL, sensorineural hearing loss.