Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are key regulators of basal ganglia functions. The axonal domain of these neurons is highly complex, with a large subset of non-synaptic release sites and a smaller subset of synaptic terminals from which in addition to DA, glutamate or GABA are also released. The molecular mechanisms regulating the connectivity of DA neurons and their neurochemical identity are unknown. An emerging literature suggests that neuroligins, trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules, regulate both DA connectivity and neurotransmission. However, the contribution of their major interaction partners, neurexins (Nrxns) is unexplored. Here we tested the hypothesis that Nrxns regulate DA neuron neurotransmission. Mice with conditional deletion of all Nrxns in DA neurons (DAT::Nrxns KO) exhibited normal basic motor functions. However, they showed an impaired locomotor response to the psychostimulant amphetamine. In line with an alteration in DA neurotransmission, decreased levels of the membrane DA transporter (DAT) and increased levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) were detected in the striatum of DAT::Nrxns KO mice, along with reduced activity-dependent DA release. Strikingly, electrophysiological recordings revealed an increase of GABA co-release from DA neuron axons in the striatum of these mice. Together, these findings suggest that Nrxns act as regulators of the functional connectivity of DA neurons.
All primary data are provided in the source data files accompanying the manuscript.
- Louis-Eric Trudeau
- LuLu Y Chen
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All procedures involving animals and their care were conducted in accordance with the Guide to care and use of Experimental Animals of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. The experimental protocols (#21-113) were approved by the animal ethics committees of the Université de Montréal (CDEA).
- Jun Ding, Stanford University, United States
© 2023, Ducrot et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric proton-gated sodium channels. Recent work has shown that these channels play a role in necroptosis following prolonged acidic exposure like occurs in stroke. The C-terminus of ASIC1a is thought to mediate necroptotic cell death through interaction with receptor interacting serine threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1). This interaction is hypothesized to be inhibited at rest via an interaction between the C- and N-termini which blocks the RIPK1 binding site. Here, we use two transition metal ion FRET methods to investigate the conformational dynamics of the termini at neutral and acidic pH. We do not find evidence that the termini are close enough to be bound while the channel is at rest and find that the termini may modestly move closer together during acidification. At rest, the N-terminus adopts a conformation parallel to the membrane about 10 Å away. The distal end of the C-terminus may also spend time close to the membrane at rest. After acidification, the proximal portion of the N-terminus moves marginally closer to the membrane whereas the distal portion of the C-terminus swings away from the membrane. Together these data suggest that a new hypothesis for RIPK1 binding during stroke is needed.
Decisions under uncertainty are often biased by the history of preceding sensory input, behavioral choices, or received outcomes. Behavioral studies of perceptual decisions suggest that such history-dependent biases affect the accumulation of evidence and can be adapted to the correlation structure of the sensory environment. Here, we systematically varied this correlation structure while human participants performed a canonical perceptual choice task. We tracked the trial-by-trial variations of history biases via behavioral modeling and of a neural signature of decision formation via magnetoencephalography (MEG). The history bias was flexibly adapted to the environment and exerted a selective effect on the build-up (not baseline level) of action-selective motor cortical activity during decision formation. This effect added to the impact of the current stimulus. We conclude that the build-up of action plans in human motor cortical circuits is shaped by dynamic prior expectations that result from an adaptive interaction with the environment.