CFTR, the anion channel mutated in cystic fibrosis patients, is a model ABC protein whose ATP-driven conformational cycle is observable at single-molecule level in patch-clamp recordings. Bursts of CFTR pore openings are coupled to tight dimerization of its two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and in wild-type (WT) channels are mostly terminated by ATP hydrolysis. The slow rate of non-hydrolytic closure – which determines how tightly bursts and ATP hydrolysis are coupled – is unknown, as burst durations of catalytic site mutants span a range of ~200-fold. Here we show that Walker A mutation K1250A, Walker B mutation D1370N, and catalytic glutamate mutations E1371S and E1371Q all completely disrupt ATP hydrolysis. True non-hydrolytic closing rate of WT CFTR approximates that of K1250A and E1371S. That rate is slowed ~15-fold in E1371Q by a non-native inter-NBD H-bond, and accelerated ~15-fold in D1370N. These findings uncover unique features of the NBD interface in human CFTR.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and the figures.
- László Csanády
- László Csanády
- László Csanády
- Márton A Simon
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. The protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Semmelweis University (Assurance number:SEMMAWB/2023-001).
- Andres Jara-Oseguera, The University of Texas at Austin, United States
© 2023, Simon et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Genome and epigenome integrity in eukaryotes depends on the proper coupling of histone deposition with DNA synthesis. This process relies on the evolutionary conserved histone chaperone CAF-1 for which the links between structure and functions are still a puzzle. While studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAF-1 complex enabled to propose a model for the histone deposition mechanism, we still lack a framework to demonstrate its generality and in particular, how its interaction with the polymerase accessory factor PCNA is operating. Here, we reconstituted a complete SpCAF-1 from fission yeast. We characterized its dynamic structure using NMR, SAXS and molecular modeling together with in vitro and in vivo functional studies on rationally designed interaction mutants. Importantly, we identify the unfolded nature of the acidic domain which folds up when binding to histones. We also show how the long KER helix mediates DNA binding and stimulates SpCAF-1 association with PCNA. Our study highlights how the organization of CAF-1 comprising both disordered regions and folded modules enables the dynamics of multiple interactions to promote synthesis-coupled histone deposition essential for its DNA replication, heterochromatin maintenance, and genome stability functions.
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a critical role in chromatin regulation. It has been proposed that these PTMs form localized ‘codes’ that are read by specialized regions (reader domains) in chromatin-associated proteins (CAPs) to regulate downstream function. Substantial effort has been made to define [CAP: histone PTM] specificities, and thus decipher the histone code and guide epigenetic therapies. However, this has largely been done using the reductive approach of isolated reader domains and histone peptides, which cannot account for any higher-order factors. Here, we show that the [BPTF PHD finger and bromodomain: histone PTM] interaction is dependent on nucleosome context. The tandem reader selectively associates with nucleosomal H3K4me3 and H3K14ac or H3K18ac, a combinatorial engagement that despite being in cis is not predicted by peptides. This in vitro specificity of the BPTF tandem reader for PTM-defined nucleosomes is recapitulated in a cellular context. We propose that regulatable histone tail accessibility and its impact on the binding potential of reader domains necessitates we refine the ‘histone code’ concept and interrogate it at the nucleosome level.