Figure 11. | Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

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Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

Figure 11.

Affiliation details

James Cook University, Australia; University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States; Simon Fraser University, Canada; University of Colorado Denver, United States; Duke University, United States; Texas A&M University, United States; University of Zurich, Switzerland; American University, United States
Figure 11.
Download figureOpen in new tabFigure 11. Taphonomy—surface modifications.

(A) Removal of the bone surface with sets of shallow, evenly spaced, multiple parallel striations on fibula (UW101–1037), which run longitudinal with the main axis of the bone and are interpreted as gastropod radula damage. (B) Fibula (UW101–1037) showing removal of the bone surface with sets of shallow, evenly spaced, multiple parallel striations that follow the collagen fibres together with shallow circular pits ranging from 0.1 to 3 mm in diameter, the bases of which may be smooth, cupped, or covered with multiple parallel striations. These features have been attributed to gastropod radula damage. (C) Tibia (UW101–484) showing removal of the bone surface with sets of shallow, striations that show a smooth scalloped edge together with circular pits ranging from 0.1 to 3 mm in diameter interpreted as the result of gnawing by beetle larvae. (D) Tibia (UW101–484) with areas of surface removal that have a straight edge associated with scrape marks interpreted as damage made by a beetle mandible. (E) Fibula (UW101–1037) with sets of shallow, evenly spaced, multiple parallel striations orientated transverse to the long axis of the bone interpreted as gastropod radula damage, resulting in an etched surface appearance that exposes underlying structures. (F) Tibia (UW101–484) showing clusters of large individual striations that are variably arrow-shaped and often overlap, interpreted as damage made by a beetle mandible. Compare with Figure 12 which shows surface modifications made by modern snails and beetles and their larvae. The scale bar in all samples equals 1 mm.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.013