(A) Rosette colony development is induced by live A. machipongonensis and the sphingolipid-enriched lipid fraction (20 mg mL−1), but not by fresh medium, A. machipongonensis LPS (10 mg mL−1), PGN (50 mg mL−1), or LPS+PGN. Shown are the whisker-box plots of the % colonial cells/total cells under each condition in three independent experiments. (B) The molecular structure of RIF-1 deduced from MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR data. The RIF-1 structure, 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-13-methyltetradecanamido)-15-methylhexadecane-1-sulfonic acid, has two parts: a base (shown in red) that defines the capnine, and a fatty acid (shown in black). Features that distinguish RIF-1 from other known capnoids are shown with colored arrows: the 2-hydroxy on the fatty acid (black) and the 5-hydroxy on the capnine base (red).