The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the - in many cells - asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations and guidelines based on the Tierschutzgesetz (TierSchG) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
- Christian S Hardtke, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
© 2014, Zourelidou et al.
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Animal migration is highly sensitised to environmental cues, but plant dispersal is considered largely passive. The common dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, bears an intricate haired pappus facilitating flight. The pappus enables the formation of a separated vortex ring during flight; however, the pappus structure is not static but reversibly changes shape by closing in response to moisture. We hypothesised that this leads to changed dispersal properties in response to environmental conditions. Using wind tunnel experiments for flow visualisation, particle image velocimetry, and flight tests we characterised the fluid mechanics effects of the pappus morphing. We also modelled dispersal to understand the impact of pappus morphing on diaspore distribution. Pappus morphing dramatically alters the fluid mechanics of diaspore flight. We found that when the pappus closes in moist conditions, the drag coefficient decreases and thus the falling velocity is greatly increased. Detachment of diaspores from the parent plant also substantially decreases. The change in detachment when the pappus closes increases dispersal distances by reducing diaspore release when wind speeds are low. We propose that moisture-dependent pappus-morphing is a form of informed dispersal allowing rapid responses to changing conditions.
Pathogens utilize a panoply of effectors to manipulate plant defense. However, despite their importance, relatively little is actually known about regulation of these virulence factors. Here, we show that the effector Fol-Secreted Virulence-related Protein1 (FolSvp1), secreted from fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), directly binds and translocates the tomato pathogenesis-related protein1, SlPR1, from the apoplast outside the plasma membrane to the host nucleus via its nuclear localization signal. Relocation of SlPR1 abolishes generation of the defense signaling peptide, CAPE1, from its C-terminus, and as a consequence, facilitates pathogen invasion of plants. The action of FolSvp1 requires covalent modification by acetylation for full virulence in host tomato tissues. The modification is catalyzed by the Fol FolArd1 lysine acetyltransferase prior to secretion. Addition of an acetyl group to one residue, K167, prevents ubiquitination-dependent degradation of FolSvp1 in both Fol and plant cells with different mechanisms, allowing it to function normally in fungal invasion. Either inactivation of FolSvp1 or removal of the acetyl group on K167 leads to impaired pathogenicity of Fol. These findings indicate that acetylation can regulate the stability of effectors of fungal plant pathogens with impact on virulence.