Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. We found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are completely restricted in their replication after entry into Lepidopteran cells. This restriction is overcome when cells are co-infected with vaccinia virus (VACV), a vertebrate DNA virus. Using RNAi screening, we show that Lepidopteran RNAi, Nuclear Factor-κB, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways restrict RNA virus infection. Surprisingly, a highly-conserved, uncharacterized VACV protein, A51R, can partially overcome this virus restriction. We show that A51R is also critical for VACV replication in vertebrate cells and for pathogenesis in mice. Interestingly, A51R colocalizes with, and stabilizes, host microtubules and also associates with ubiquitin. We show that A51R promotes viral protein stability, possibly by preventing ubiquitin-dependent targeting of viral proteins for destruction. Importantly, our studies reveal exciting new opportunities to study virus-host interactions in experimentally-tractable Lepidopteran systems.
Animal experimentation: All animal work was approved by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Ethics Committee for Animal Care and Use (Permit number: P044-2010) and all animal guidelines and policies were in accordance with the Belgian Royal Decree of 14 November 1993 and the European Directive 86-609-EEC.When necessary, animals were euthanized by administering pentobarbital sodium.
- Ruslan Medzhitov, Yale University School of Medicine, United States
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The interplay among different cells in a tissue is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Although disease states have been traditionally attributed to individual cell types, increasing evidence and new therapeutic options have demonstrated the primary role of multicellular functions to understand health and disease, opening new avenues to understand pathogenesis and develop new treatment strategies. We recently described the cellular composition and dynamics of the human oral mucosa; however, the spatial arrangement of cells is needed to better understand a morphologically complex tissue. Here, we link single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptomics, and high-resolution multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation to characterise human oral mucosa in health and oral chronic inflammatory disease. We deconvolved expression for resolution enhancement of spatial transcriptomic data and defined highly specialised epithelial and stromal compartments describing location-specific immune programs. Furthermore, we spatially mapped a rare pathogenic fibroblast population localised in a highly immunogenic region, responsible for lymphocyte recruitment through CXCL8 and CXCL10 and with a possible role in pathological angiogenesis through ALOX5AP. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive reference for the study of oral chronic disease pathogenesis.
Newborns are unable to reach the adult-level humoral immune response partly due to the potent immunoregulatory role of IL-10. Increased IL-10 production by neonatal B cells has been attributed to the larger population of IL-10-producting CD43+ B-1 cells in neonates. Here, we show that neonatal mouse CD43- non-B-1 cells also produce substantial amounts of IL-10 following B cell antigen receptor (BCR) activation. In neonatal mouse CD43- non-B-1 cells, BCR engagement activated STAT5 under the control of phosphorylated forms of signaling molecules Syk, Btk, PKC, FAK and Rac1. Neonatal STAT5 activation led to IL-6 production, which in turn was responsible for IL-10 production in an autocrine/paracrine fashion through the activation of STAT3. In addition to the increased IL-6 production in response to BCR stimulation, elevated expression of IL-6Rα expression in neonatal B cells rendered them highly susceptible to IL-6 mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 production. Finally, IL-10 secreted from neonatal mouse CD43- non-B-1 cells was sufficient to inhibit TNF-α secretion by macrophages. Our results unveil a distinct mechanism of IL-6-dependent IL-10 production in BCR-stimulated neonatal CD19+CD43- B cells.