Mutations in the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL cause Lowe syndrome and Dent's disease. Although OCRL, a direct clathrin interactor, is recruited to late-stage clathrin-coated pits, clinical manifestations have been primarily attributed to intracellular sorting defects. Here we show that OCRL loss in Lowe syndrome patient fibroblasts impacts clathrin-mediated endocytosis and results in an endocytic defect. These cells exhibit an accumulation of clathrin-coated vesicles and an increase in U-shaped clathrin-coated pits, which may result from sequestration of coat components on uncoated vesicles. Endocytic vesicles that fail to lose their coat nucleate the majority of the numerous actin comets present in patient cells. SNX9, an adaptor that couples late-stage endocytic coated pits to actin polymerization and which we found to bind OCRL directly, remains associated with such vesicles. These results indicate that OCRL acts as an uncoating factor and that defects in clathrin-mediated endocytosis likely contribute to pathology in patients with OCRL mutations.
- Suzanne R Pfeffer, Stanford University, United States
© 2014, Nández et al.
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De novo limb regeneration after amputation is restricted in mammals to the distal digit tip. Central to this regenerative process is the blastema, a heterogeneous population of lineage-restricted, dedifferentiated cells that ultimately orchestrates regeneration of the amputated bone and surrounding soft tissue. To investigate skeletal regeneration, we made use of spatial transcriptomics to characterize the transcriptional profile specifically within the blastema. Using this technique, we generated a gene signature with high specificity for the blastema in both our spatial data, as well as other previously published single-cell RNA-sequencing transcriptomic studies. To elucidate potential mechanisms distinguishing regenerative from non-regenerative healing, we applied spatial transcriptomics to an aging model. Consistent with other forms of repair, our digit amputation mouse model showed a significant impairment in regeneration in aged mice. Contrasting young and aged mice, spatial analysis revealed a metabolic shift in aged blastema associated with an increased bioenergetic requirement. This enhanced metabolic turnover was associated with increased hypoxia and angiogenic signaling, leading to excessive vascularization and altered regenerated bone architecture in aged mice. Administration of the metabolite oxaloacetate decreased the oxygen consumption rate of the aged blastema and increased WNT signaling, leading to enhanced in vivo bone regeneration. Thus, targeting cell metabolism may be a promising strategy to mitigate aging-induced declines in tissue regeneration.
MAF1, a key repressor of RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription, has been shown to promote mesoderm formation in vitro. Here, we show that MAF1 plays a critical role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation and bone mass. A high bone mass phenotype was noted in mice with a global deletion of Maf1 (Maf1-/- mice). However, osteoblasts isolated from Maf1-/- mice showed reduced osteoblastogenesis ex vivo. Therefore, we determined the effect of MAF1 overexpression specifically in cells from the mesenchymal lineage (Prx1-Cre;LSL-MAF1 mice). These mice showed increased bone mass. Ex vivo, cells from Prx1-Cre;LSL-MAF1 mice showed enhanced osteoblastogenesis concordant with their high bone mass phenotype. Thus, the high bone mass phenotype in Maf1-/- mice is likely due to the confounding effects of the global absence of Maf1 in Maf1-/- mice. MAF1 overexpression promoted osteoblast differentiation and shRNA-mediated Maf1 downregulation inhibited differentiation of ST2 cells, overall indicating MAF1 enhances osteoblast formation. We also found that, in contrast to MAF1 overexpression, other perturbations that repress RNA pol III transcription, including Brf1 knockdown and chemical inhibition of RNA pol III by ML-60218, inhibited osteoblast differentiation. All perturbations that decrease RNA pol III transcription, however, enhanced adipogenesis in ST2 cell cultures. RNA-seq was used to determine the basis for these opposing actions on osteoblast differentiation. The modalities used to perturb RNA pol III transcription resulted in distinct gene expression changes, indicating that this transcription process is highly sensitive and triggers diverse gene expression programs and phenotypic outcomes. Specifically, MAF1 induced genes in ST2 cells known to promote osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, genes that are induced during osteoblast differentiation displayed codon bias. Together, these results reveal a novel role for MAF1 and RNA pol III-mediated transcription in osteoblast fate determination and differentiation and bone mass regulation.