Hypothetical phylogeny based on Hodgson and Hardy (2013) and Vea and Grimaldi (2015) (extinct families omitted). Matsucoccidae, Ortheziidae, Margarodidae are commonly considered as the most primitive families (Vea and Grimaldi, 2015), but their phylogenetic relationships are still unresolved (e.g., Gullan and Cook, 2007; Hodgson and Hardy, 2013). Thick lines indicate the known extent of the fossil record. (1) Undescribed scale marks on plants from the Middle Triassic Dont Formation of Italy (T Wappler, personal observation, October 2014); (2) scale marks on plants from the Late Triassic Molteno Formation of South Africa (Labandeira, 2006); (3) putative, undescribed scale insect from the Late Jurassic (Grimaldi and Engel, 2005); Red star represents Wathondara kotejai from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. An early diversification of scale insects probably occurred during the end of the Jurassic or earliest Cretaceous (blue area), and later radiations are probably closely related to the rise of angiosperms and ants (Grimaldi and Engel, 2005).