Salmonellae PhoQ is a histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain (PD) that promotes virulence by detecting the macrophage phagosome. PhoQ activity is repressed by divalent cations and induced in environments of acidic pH, limited divalent cations, and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP). Previously, it was unclear which signals are sensed by salmonellae to promote PhoQ-mediated virulence. We defined conformational changes produced in the PhoQ PD on exposure to acidic pH that indicate structural flexibility is induced in α-helices 4 and 5, suggesting this region contributes to pH sensing. Therefore, we engineered a disulfide bond between W104C and A128C in the PhoQ PD that restrains conformational flexibility in α-helices 4 and 5. PhoQW104C-A128C is responsive to CAMP, but is inhibited for activation by acidic pH and divalent cation limitation. phoQW104C-A128C Salmonella enterica Typhimurium are virulent in mice, indicating that acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for virulence.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocol (2982-02) of the University of Washington.
- Feng Shao, National Institute of Biological Sciences, China
© 2015, Hicks et al.
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Antioxidant intervention is considered to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alleviates hyperglycemia. Paradoxically, moderate exercise can produce ROS to improve diabetes. The exact redox mechanism of these two different approaches remains largely unclear. Here, by comparing exercise and antioxidants intervention on type 2 diabetic rats, we found moderate exercise upregulated compensatory antioxidant capability and reached a higher level of redox balance in the liver. In contrast, antioxidant intervention achieved a low-level redox balance by inhibiting oxidative stress. Both of these two interventions could promote glucose catabolism and inhibit gluconeogenesis through activation of hepatic AMPK signaling, therefore ameliorating diabetes. During exercise, different levels of ROS generated by exercise have differential regulations on the activity and expression of hepatic AMPK. Moderate exercise-derived ROS promoted hepatic AMPK glutathionylation activation. However, excessive exercise increased oxidative damage and inhibited the activity and expression of AMPK. Overall, our results illustrate that both exercise and antioxidant intervention improve blood glucose in diabetes by promoting redox balance, despite different levels of redox balance. These results indicate that the AMPK signaling activation, combined with oxidative damage markers, could act as a sensitive biomarker, reflecting the threshold of redox balance defining effective treatment in diabetes. These findings provide theoretical evidence for the precise treatment of diabetes by antioxidants and exercise.
Activating mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause Parkinson's disease and previously we showed that activated LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of Rab GTPases (Steger et al., 2017). Moreover, Golgi-associated Rab29 can recruit LRRK2 to the surface of the Golgi and activate it there for both auto- and Rab substrate phosphorylation. Here we define the precise Rab29 binding region of the LRRK2 Armadillo domain between residues 360-450 and show that this domain, termed 'Site #1', can also bind additional LRRK2 substrates, Rab8A and Rab10. Moreover, we identify a distinct, N-terminal, higher affinity interaction interface between LRRK2 phosphorylated Rab8 and Rab10 termed 'Site #2', that can retain LRRK2 on membranes in cells to catalyze multiple, subsequent phosphorylation events. Kinase inhibitor washout experiments demonstrate that rapid recovery of kinase activity in cells depends on the ability of LRRK2 to associate with phosphorylated Rab proteins, and phosphorylated Rab8A stimulates LRRK2 phosphorylation of Rab10 in vitro. Reconstitution of purified LRRK2 recruitment onto planar lipid bilayers decorated with Rab10 protein demonstrates cooperative association of only active LRRK2 with phospho-Rab10-containing membrane surfaces. These experiments reveal a feed-forward pathway that provides spatial control and membrane activation of LRRK2 kinase activity.