(A) Quantification of aggression (lunge count) in control or sleep deprived male CS flies. ‘Between conditions’ indicates fights between a control fly and a sleep-deprived fly; ‘within condition’ is a fight between 2 sleep-deprived or 2 control flies. ‘Daytime deprivation’ and ‘recovery’ refers to fights between conditions (n = 16, 16, 9, 10, 10, 8, 14, 9 from left to right). (B) Percentage of flies in each condition establishing dominance (fights between conditions). (C) Latency to first lunge following first social encounter (fights are within condition; n = 9 control, 7 deprived). (D) Lunging follow sleep deprivation during the final 1, 3 or 6 hr(s) of the night (fights within condition; n = 8, 8, 13, 9, 12, 12 from left to right). (E) Lunging following 6 hr of mechanical stimulation during the final 3 hr of night and first 3 hr of day (fights within condition; n = 11 for both). (F) Recovery of aggression following prior sleep deprivation for 12 hr (fights within condition; n = 10, 10, 18, 17, 19, 18, 15, 12 from left to right). Box plots in this figure and all others represent median value (horizontal line inside box), interquartile range (height of the box, 50% of the data within this range), and minimum and maximum value (whiskers). Bar graphs in this figure and all others are presented as mean ± s.e.m. *p < 0.05; 1 way ANOVA with Tukey's (A, D) or Sidak's (F) post-hoc test; unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test (C, E). SD = sleep deprivation.