(A) Overview of the experimental protocol for the Sleep group (upper line) and the Wake group (lower line), composed of three main MRI sessions, each preceded by PVT.Learning and test sessions were performed during one afternoon and separated by a nap (Sleep group) or rest (Wake group) interval monitored by EEG. The retest session occurred three months later. (B) Each series of pictures started by a high (dollar symbol) or low (cent symbol) reward cue and was composed of the following series of pictures: pillow, sofa, kitchen, bedroom, house, and landscape. (C) Examples of direct trials (left), inference of order 1 trials (middle) and inference of order 2 trials (right). Direct trials were used during the learning, test, and retest sessions, while inference 1 and 2 trials were only used during the test and retest sessions.