Trim and fill analysis was performed on pooled malignancies, as well as the three malignancies with the greatest study volume. (A) All experiments for all malignancies (n = 182), (B) all experiments within renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n = 35), (C) breast cancer (n = 32), and (D) colorectal cancer (n = 29). Time point was the LCT. Open circles denote original data points whereas black circles denote ‘filled’ experiments. Trim and fill did not produce an estimate in RCC; therefore, no overestimation of effect size could be found.