(A, B) Dexamethasone inhibits microglia activation indicated by decreased number of IBA1+/PCNA+ cells. Low-magnification images illustrate that dexamethasone decreases microglia proliferation in A and quantification is shown in B. n = 6, *p < 0.05. (Unpaired t-test). (C, D) Dexamethasone does not inhibit ependymoglia activation, indicated by unchanged number of ventricular GFAP+/PCNA+ cells. Low-magnification images illustrate that dexamethasone does not decrease ependymoglia proliferation in C and quantification is shown in D. n = 6. (Unpaired t-test). (E–G) Hypoxia/re-oxygenation increases proliferation of GFAP+ cells in neurospheres in a ROS dependent manner. Images illustrating proliferation of GFAP+ cells in control and experimental neurosphere cultures are shown in E. Quantifications of PCNA+/GFAP+ cells are shown in F, G. n = 3, *p < 0.05. (Unpaired t-test). Scale bar = 20 μm.