This figure shows the same data as Figure 5a, extended by mapping genes known to have undergone selection for antimalarial resistance. For each gene, we show circles marking the N/S ration in Africa (red letter) and SEA (blue letter), paired by a vertical line annotated with a p-value (by Fisher’s exact test) that the two ratios are significantly different. The genes shown are kelch13 (denoted by the letter ‘K’), pfcrt (chloroquine resistance, ‘C’), pfdhfr (pyrimethamine resistance, ‘R’), pfdhps (sulfadoxine resistance, ‘S’), and pfmdr1 (resistance to chloroquine and other drugs, ‘M’). These results are best analyzed in the context of the underlying selective sweeps. For example, the small difference between ratios for the pfmdr1 gene can be explained by the association of the drug resistance phenotype with gene amplification, rather than with non-synonymous changes. Also, the extremely high N/S ratio for pfcrt in SEA is largely due to a paucity of synonymous SNPs, caused by the near-fixation of a very small number of haplotypes in the SEA region, yielding a p-value comparable to that of kelch13.