(A) Dry mass measurements of non-starved and starved yeast. Yeast cells in normal glucose, glucose deprivation, and raffinose growth conditions were lyophilized, and their cellular dry masses were determined. Error bars represent standard deviations about the mean (N = 3 independent experiments for non-starved and starved conditions; N = 1 for raffinose growth condition). (B) AFM experiments measure a mean stiffness increase from 18 to 22 nN·μm-1 for non-starved and starved cells, respectively, along with an increase in cell-to-cell variability (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p = 0.013). Box plot: red line represents the mean, blue lines represent the 1st and 3rd quartiles, and whiskers represent the minimum and maximum values. Each data point represents the mean value of eight measurement cycles on a single cell (see 'Materials and methods'). (C) Mating pheromone-treated budding yeast cells (shmoos) remain elongated after starvation. Shmooed budding yeast cells prior to spheroplasting (left), non-starved shmooed spheroplasts (center), and starved shmooed spheroplasts (right). Scale bar: 10 μm. (D) Fission yeast cells remain elongated after starvation. Fission yeast cells prior to spheroplasting (left), non-starved spheroplasts (center), and starved spheroplasts (right). Scale bar: 10 μm. Spheroplasting efficiency in the experiments described in (B), (C), and (D) was equally efficient in starved and non-starved cells and assessed via lysis in water. (E) Histograms of cell volumes of log-growing wildtype E. coli after 30 min of treatment with 2 mM DNP or the solvent control (EtOH). Approximately 100,000 cells were measured in each condition using a Beckman Coulter Multisizer 3.