(A) A PCR array was used to detect the expression of 84 cytokines/chemokines in eight highly polluted region (HPR) lung cancers. (B) The ratios of CXCL13 in tumor samples to their counterpart normal lung tissues from both the HPR and control region (CR) non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). (C) Comparison of the CXCL13tumor/CXCL13normal values of the HPR patients with the CR cases. (D, E) CXCL13 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in HPR and CR patients (D), and the immunoreactivity score was calculated (E). (F) Western blot analyses of lysates from the tumors and adjacent normal lung tissues harvested from CR NSCLCs. (G) The concentrations of CXCL13 in the blood samples from healthy donors (HDs) and HPR and CR patients were detected by ELISA. (H, I) CXCL13 expression in Oncomine reports. (H) CXCL13 expression was detected by microarrays in tumor samples and normal lung tissues. AD, adenocarcinoma; A+S, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma; Ca, Canada; It, Italy; Jp, Japan; SC, squamous cell carcinoma; Tw, Taiwan, China. (I) The expression of CXCL13 was detected in tumor tissues of smokers and non-smokers. (J) In mouse Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data sets, the expression of cxcl13 in indicated mice was detected by microarray. (K) The relationship between the CXCL13 expression and the tumor stages of lung cancer patients. (L) Overall survival of 54 CR patients (see Table 3 for their baseline demographic characteristics). The median follow-up was 1087 days (range, 187–1845 days).