1. Neuroscience
Download icon

Specialized areas for value updating and goal selection in the primate orbitofrontal cortex

  1. Elisabeth A Murray  Is a corresponding author
  2. Emily J Moylan
  3. Kadharbatcha S Saleem
  4. Benjamin M Basile
  5. Janita Turchi
  1. National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, United States
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2015;4:e11695 doi: 10.7554/eLife.11695
5 figures

Figures

Behavioral task and localization of infusions.

(a) 60-pair discrimination learning task. On each trial, monkeys chose one of two images by making a touch to the screen. Touching the image designated the S+ (rewarded) led to delivery of food reward, whereas touching the image designated the S− (nonrewarded) led to termination of the trial and initiation of the intertrial interval. Half of the S+ led to delivery of food 1 (e.g., peanut); the remaining S+ led to delivery of food 2 (e.g., M&M). Image pairs and image-reward assignments were fixed across sessions. There were 60 trials per session. (b) Probe tests. On each trial, monkeys chose between a food-1 and food-2 associated image. Touching the image on the screen led to delivery of the food reward assigned to that image in the acquisition phase. Images were paired anew each session. There were 30 trials per session. (c) Intended target locations. Left side: coronal sections through the frontal lobe. Right side: intended target locations illustrated on a ventral view of the anterior half of the macaque brain. Numerals indicate distance in mm from the interaural plane (0). (d) Reconstruction of infusion sites onto ventral view of the macaque brain. Symbols indicate location of infusion sites; different symbols correspond to individual monkeys. For ease in viewing, left hemisphere sites are shown on the left.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11695.003
Documentation of infusion sites in the OFC.

(a) MR image showing sites of gadolinium-saline infusions (white hypersignal) in area 13. A gadolinium-saline solution was infused to a site just dorsal to the intended target to confirm accurate placement of the cannulae before data collection began. (b) Photograph of ventral view of brain showing locations of retrograde tracer injections made at the end of the experiment to reconfirm target locations. Numerals correspond to sections illustrated in (c) and (d). Red outlined region illustrates site of injection of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), as reconstructed after histological processing of tissue. Yellow outlined region illustrates site of injection of Fast Blue, which appears yellow before processing. (c) and (d). Line drawings of coronal sections through the anterior OFC (area 11) (c) and the posterior OFC (area 13) (d). Red-shaded region corresponds to CTB tracer injection. Blue-shaded region corresponds to Fast Blue injection. Scale bar applies to both c and d. Compare and contrast with Figure 1. Abbreviations: cd, caudate nucleus; ps, principal sulcus; as, arcuate sulcus; 11l, 11m, 12m, 12r, 12o, 13m, and 13b, cytoarchitectonic divisions of the prefrontal cortex (Carmichael and Price, 1994).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11695.004
Schematic of experimental design.

During the main experiment, monkeys were tested 4 days per week. All primary experimental manipulations were carried out on Day 4.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11695.005
Effect of temporary inactivation of area 13 and area 11 on image choices following reinforcer devaluation.

Proportion shifted represents the shift in image choices after selective satiation (Day 4) relative to baseline (Day 2), combined across probe tests; the higher the score the greater the shift away from choices associated with the devalued food. Asterisks indicate significant differences (area 13, saline vs. THIP Pre, p = 0.005; area 11, saline vs. THIP Post, p = 0.012). Bars represent group means and symbols show the scores of individual monkeys. White bars, saline infusions; black bars, THIP infusions administered before selective satiation; gray bars, THIP infusions administered after selective satiation.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11695.006
Control procedures.

(a) Effect of temporary inactivation of area 13 and area 11 of the OFC on image choices in the absence of selective satiation. Proportion choice indicates the proportion of chosen images associated with the either the preferred food (black, designated Food 1) or nonpreferred food (white, designated Food 2) out of the total number of choices averaged across probe tests. There was no effect of THIP infusions on image choices relative to baseline. Baseline: image choices on baseline days; Area 13: image choices after THIP infusions into area 13; Area 11: image choices after THIP infusions into area 11. (b) Effect of THIP infusions into area 11 on image choices for the 60 object discrimination problems learned in the Training phase (Figure 1a). Proportion correct indicates the accuracy on the familiar discrimination problems. There was no effect of THIP infusions on choice accuracy for the familiar discrimination problems. Baseline, no infusions; Drug, THIP infusions into area 11 administered prior to test session. (c) Effect of temporary inactivation of area 13 and area 11 on food choices after selective satiation. Proportion choice nonsated food is scored from forced-choice trials involving selection between the sated and nonsated food. White bars, saline infusions; black bars, THIP infusions administered before selective satiation; gray bars, THIP infusions administered after selective satiation. All monkeys reliably chose the higher-value (nonsated) food after selective satiation procedures, even after inactivation of area 13 or area 11. Thus, satiety mechanisms were intact during all experimental conditions. For all panels, bars represent group means and error bars represent ± SEM.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11695.007

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)