(A) In acute slices expressing GCaMP6s (green) and targeted ChR2-P2A-H2B-mRuby2 (magenta), cells were identified for photostimulation based on nuclear mRuby2 fluorescence (yellow circles). A cell was patched and dye-filled (triangle) and assessed for postsynaptic currents as surrounding cells were stimulated (1.40 mW/µm2 incident power) and GCaMP fluorescence was simultaneously recorded. Scale bar = 100 µm. (B) Changes in GCaMP fluorescence over the experimental timecourse for each cell identified in (A); each cell was stimulated sequentially with ~2 s between cells. Signals are the average of four trials. In this experiment, 35 out of 43 cells yielded calcium transients in response to optical stimulation; overall the average probability of detecting an induced calcium response was 80%. (C) Calcium (blue) responses for a subset of cells reacting to TF stimulation; four trials are overlaid in light blue, with the average in dark blue. Red lines in the calcium traces indicate the onset of stimulation for each cell. The recorded currents for the four trials (black) in the patched and putatively postsynaptic cell are shown expanded below each calcium trace; the shaded red region indicates the 150 ms stimulation epoch. Three cells showed a calcium response to TF stimulation and triggered postsynaptic currents (fast onset kinetics but delayed with respect to the TF stimulation) in the patched cell. Five representative cells showing calcium transients but no reproducible postsynaptic currents are also shown. For the displayed three connected cells and the five unconnected cells, the cell numbers, spatial locations and full calcium traces are marked with plus signs and minus signs, respectively, in panels (A) and (B). Across multiple experiments, the average connection probability was 10% (27 connections out of 252 responsive cells).