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mTORC1 is necessary but mTORC2 and GSK3β are inhibitory for AKT3-induced axon regeneration in the central nervous system

  1. Linqing Miao
  2. Liu Yang
  3. Haoliang Huang
  4. Feisi Liang
  5. Chen Ling
  6. Yang Hu  Is a corresponding author
  1. Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, United States
  2. University of Florida College of Medicine, United States
Research Article
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Cite this article as: eLife 2016;5:e14908 doi: 10.7554/eLife.14908

Abstract

Injured mature CNS axons do not regenerate in mammals. Deletion of PTEN, the negative regulator of PI3K, induces CNS axon regeneration through activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling. We have conducted an extensive molecular dissection of the cross-regulating mechanisms in axon regeneration that involve the downstream effectors of PI3K, AKT and the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2). We found that the predominant AKT isoform in CNS, AKT3, induces much more robust axon regeneration than AKT1 and that activation of mTORC1 and inhibition of GSK3β are two critical parallel pathways for AKT-induced axon regeneration. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of T308 and S473 of AKT play opposite roles in GSK3β phosphorylation and inhibition, by which mTORC2 and pAKT-S473 negatively regulate axon regeneration. Thus our study revealed a complex neuron-intrinsic balancing mechanism involving AKT as the nodal point of PI3K, mTORC1/2 and GSK3β that coordinates both positive and negative cues to regulate adult CNS axon regeneration.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Linqing Miao

    Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Liu Yang

    Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Haoliang Huang

    Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Feisi Liang

    Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Chen Ling

    Division of Cellular and Molecular Therapy, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  6. Yang Hu

    Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, United States
    For correspondence
    yanghu@temple.edu
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#4351) of the Temple University School of Medicine.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Nahum Sonenberg, McGill University, Canada

Publication history

  1. Received: February 1, 2016
  2. Accepted: March 21, 2016
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: March 30, 2016 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: April 18, 2016 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2016, Miao et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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