1. Developmental Biology
  2. Cell Biology
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Cells must express components of the planar cell polarity system and extracellular matrix to support cytonemes

  1. Hai Huang
  2. Thomas B Kornberg  Is a corresponding author
  1. University of California, San Francisco, United States
Research Article
  • Cited 26
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Cite this article as: eLife 2016;5:e18979 doi: 10.7554/eLife.18979


Drosophila dorsal air sac development depends on Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) proteins produced by the wing imaginal disc and transported by cytonemes to the air sac primordium (ASP). Dpp and FGF signaling in the ASP was dependent on components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) system in the disc, and neither Dpp- nor FGF-receiving cytonemes extended over mutant disc cells that lacked them. ASP cytonemes normally navigate through extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of collagen, laminin, Dally and Dally-like (Dlp) proteins that are stratified in layers over the disc cells. However, ECM over PCP mutant cells had reduced levels of laminin, Dally and Dlp, and whereas Dpp-receiving ASP cytonemes navigated in the Dally layer and required Dally (but not Dlp), FGF-receiving ASP cytonemes navigated in the Dlp layer, requiring Dlp (but not Dally). These findings suggest that cytonemes interact directly and specifically with proteins in the stratified ECM.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Hai Huang

    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Thomas B Kornberg

    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States
    For correspondence
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-6879-7066


NIH Office of the Director (GM030637)

  • Hai Huang

NIH Office of the Director (GM030637)

  • Hai Huang

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Jeremy Nathans, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: June 21, 2016
  2. Accepted: August 31, 2016
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: September 3, 2016 (version 1)
  4. Accepted Manuscript updated: September 8, 2016 (version 2)
  5. Version of Record published: September 20, 2016 (version 3)


© 2016, Huang & Kornberg

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.


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