1. Neuroscience
  2. Developmental Biology
Download icon

Neuroendocrine modulation sustains the C. elegans forward motor state

  1. Maria A Lim  Is a corresponding author
  2. Jyothsna Chitturi
  3. Valeriya Laskova
  4. Jun Meng
  5. Daniel Findeis
  6. Anne Wiekenberg
  7. Ben Mulcahy
  8. Linjiao Luo
  9. Yan Li
  10. Yangning Lu
  11. Wesley Hung
  12. Yixin Qu
  13. Chi-Yip Ho
  14. Douglas Holmyard
  15. Ni Ji
  16. Rebecca McWhirter
  17. Aravinthan DT Samuel
  18. David M Miller
  19. Ralf Schnabel
  20. John A Calarco  Is a corresponding author
  21. Mei Zhen  Is a corresponding author
  1. Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
  2. Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Canada
  3. University of Toronto, Canada
  4. Technische Universität Braunschweig Carolo Wilhelmina, Germany
  5. Nanjing University, China
  6. Harvard University, United States
  7. Vanderbilt University, United States
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2016;5:e19887 doi: 10.7554/eLife.19887
8 figures, 7 videos, 3 tables and 2 additional files

Figures

RID is a peptidergic neuron.

(A) Schematic of the RID neuron. (B) sTEM reconstruction of RID and motor neurons in a L1 animal. Top panel, Skeletal reconstruction of motor neurons and respective processes in dorsal nerve cord (DNC). Yellow, RID; Green, DD; Light blue, DA; Dark blue, DB. Bottom panel, Volumetric reconstruction of the L1 RID cell body and dorsal cord neurite showed periodic swellings along the RID neurite. (C) Volumetric reconstruction of a portion of the RID axon in a young adult. Bottom, The neurite of RID (yellow), DD (pink). Middle, higher magnification versions of the regions indicated by the dashed boxes i, ii and iii. Top, Representative EM cross-section images of RID and DD boutons in the adult DNC. In the volumetric reconstruction, green spheres indicate synaptic vesicles (SVs), blue spheres dense core vesicles (DCVs), red shading indicates active zones, and light blue shading indicates mitochondria. (D) Top panels, a cytoplasmic GFP reporter illustrates the RID axon, followed by reporters for the DCV membrane protein IDA-1 and the neuropeptide INS-22 along the RID axon. Bottom panel, INS-22::GFP accumulated at coelomocytes (dotted circle), indicating that it was secreted. Scale bar, 5 μm.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.002
Figure 2 with 1 supplement
RID fails to differentiate in unc-39 mutants.

(A) In unc-39 mutants, RID soma (circle) and axon could not be detected by the Pceh-10-GFP marker, while other Pceh-10-GFP cells are present. Scale bar, 10 μm. (B) A predicted protein structure of UNC-39 compared with its Drosophila homologue SO, denoted with allelic information of hp701 and e257 mutations. (C) unc-39 expression in the nervous system was observed in embryos (top panel), newly hatched L1 larvae (middle panel), and young adults (lower two panels). Scale bar, 10 μm. (D) Lineage map of ABalappaa, the neuroblast that gives rise to RID (ABalappaapa) in embryos of wild-type animals and unc-39 mutants. unc-39 mutants exhibited a range of mitosis changes. (E) Skeletal sTEM reconstruction of a fragment of the DNC of a wild-type and unc-39 mutant. The RID axon is absent from the unc-39 DNC. Red, RID; Yellow, DD; Green, VD; Light blue, DA/AS; Dark blue, DB. (F) Representative images of the EM cross-section from the DNC of unc-39 mutants. Numbers (1-3) denote their approximate locations in E. RID process is absent in all three sections. The identity of neurons, hypodermis and muscles are labeled accordingly. Scale bar, 500 nm.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.004
Figure 2—figure supplement 1
The expression pattern of UNC-39::GFP and phenotypes of unc-39 mutants.

(A) During embryogenesis, unc-39::GFP is expressed in both RID (arrowhead) and the RID sister cell (arrow) (t1), before the latter dies as a result of apoptosis (t2). (B) Known RID cell fate markers, such as kal-1 (top panel), ser-2 (middle panel), and mod-1 (bottom panel) are present in wild type animals (arrow), but not unc-39 mutants hp701 and e257. (C) During early embryogenesis, the RID lineage-specific apoptosis activator UNC-3 is expressed in RID and the RID sister cell, but not in unc-39 mutants. (D) The absence of RID in unc-39 mutants is not due to ectopic apoptosis. Bottom Left, A schematic of the RID cell lineage: the ABalappaa neuroblast undergoes two consecutive rounds of mitosis to give rise to RID. Both the sisters of the RID precursor and RID undergo apoptosis. Top Panel, Apoptotic mutants ced-3 and ced-4 possess two RID neurons resulting from failure to activate apoptosis in the RID sister (arrowheads). However, a majority of unc-39; ced-3 and unc-39; ced-4 mutants still do not possess RID. Bottom Right, Quantification of genetic interaction from top panel. N = 10 animals/genotype. For B, C, and D, the putative position of RID and/or RID sister cell in unc-39 mutants is designated by a circle.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.005
Subtractive transcriptome profiling reveals neuropeptides expressed by RID.

(A) The experimental design and schematic of cell isolation protocol by flow cytometry. SSC, side scatter. (B) The workflow of data analysis. (C) A venn diagram representation of neuropeptide transcripts enriched in wild-type and unc-39 datasets. (D) A transcriptional reporter of Pflp-14 exhibits expression in RID cell body (circle), along the RID axon (arrowheads) and other neurons, including those in the mid-body (PDE, bottom left panel) and tail (PLN, bottom right panel). Scale bar, 10 μm. (E) A transcriptional reporter of Pins-17 exhibits expression in RID (circle) and other unidentified neurons. Scale bar, 10 μm.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.006
RID activity increase correlates with forward movements.

(A) Representative velocity (top) and corresponding RID calcium activity trace (bottom) from a freely moving animal. Normalized ratiometric signal changes (ΔF/F), as well as the raw fluorescence intensities of GCaMP and cherry are shown. ΔF/F was used to calculate changes in calcium activity for each animal. Changes in positions of fluorescent signals were used to calculate velocity and directionality. (B) RID activity as measured by GCaMP/cherry ratio change (± SEM) during transition periods. Left panel, RID activity increased when animals transition from backward to fast forward locomotion. Right panel, RID activity decreased when animals transition from forward to backward locomotion. For A and B, dotted longitudinal lines indicate transition periods from backward to forward locomotion and vice versa. (C) Cross-correlation analyses between the change in RID activity and the change in velocity. Positive and negative slopes (Y-axis) indicate increase (Ca rise) and decrease (Ca decay) in RID, respectively. Positive and negative values on the X-axis indicate changes in velocity from backward to forward locomotion (acceleration) and from forward to backward locomotion (deceleration), respectively. For B and C, N = 10 animals/genotype. In C, each dot represents a transitional event.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.008
Figure 5 with 2 supplements
RID and FLP-14 potentiate sustained, long forward movements.

(A-A”’) Spontaneous motor behavioral output, the propensity of directional movement and the interruption of forward movement between wild-type control (mock-ablated Pceh-10-GFP animals), RID-ablated Pceh-10-GFP animals, wild-type (N2), unc-39, and flp-14 mutants. RID-ablated, unc-39, and flp-14 mutants showed decreased propensity for long forward runs, replacing it with more frequent reversals and pauses. (A) Total fractional time animals of each genotype spent in forward, reversal, or pauses. (A’) Frequency of re-initiation of forward runs and reversals. (A’’) Duration of forward and reversal runs. (A”’) Velocity of forward and reversal runs. (B-B”’) Spontaneous motor behavioral output, the propensity of directional movement and the interruption of forward movement between wild-type (N2), ins-17, and ins-17 flp-14 mutants. (B) Total fractional time animals of each genotype spent in forward, reversal, or pauses. (B’) Frequency of re-initiation of forward runs and reversals. (B’’) Duration of forward and reversal runs. (B’’’) Velocity of forward and reversal runs. ins-17 mutants did not show significant changes in motor behavior, while ins-17 flp-14 generally resembled flp-14 in motor behavior. N = 10 animals/genotype. Error bars are ± SEM.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.010
Figure 5—figure supplement 1
Raw data for spontaneous motor behaviors of animals quantified in Figure 5.

Plots of the body curvature (Y axis, anterior to posterior) over time (X axis) of individual animals of the following genotypes: hpIs202 (Pceh-10-GFP RID marker) mock-ablated, hpIs202 (Pceh-10-GFP RID marker) RID-ablated, wild-type (N2), unc-39, and flp-14. Each heat-map plot represents one animal. N = 8–10/genotype. These recordings were performed on the same day. They were recorded on the same plate, one animal at a time, alternating through animals of each genotype. Forward and reversal movements are viewed by the directionality of the curvature propagation; velocities are viewed by the speed of curvature propagation. White regions represent times when the program lost track of the animal, which typically happened when the animal’s head and tail touched each other during turns. Compared to their respective controls, RID-ablated animals, unc-39, and flp-14 mutants exhibited reduced propensity and continuity of forward movements. Forward velocity of RID-ablated and unc-39 animals was reduced. All defects were less prominent in flp-14 mutants.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.011
Figure 5—figure supplement 2
Frequency distribution of forward and reversal velocities quantified in Figure 5.

Percentage distribution of forward and reversal velocities of individual animals of the following genotypes: hpIs202 (Pceh-10-GFP RID marker) mock-ablated, hpIs202 (Pceh-10-GFP RID marker) RID-ablated, wild-type (N2), unc-39, flp-14, ins-17, and ins-17 flp-14. Negative values represent reversal velocity; positive values represent forward velocity; zero value represents pauses. Compared to their respective controls, RID-ablated and unc-39 mutants exhibited reduced velocities, specifically during forward locomotion. flp-14 and ins-17 flp-14 mutants showed a tendency towards reduced velocities, while ins-17 mutants were similar to wild-type (N2). N = 10 animals/genotype.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.012
Figure 6 with 2 supplements
FLP-14 potentiates forward movements through RID.

(A–A’’’) Spontaneous motor behavioral output between wild-type Si(FLP-14), flp-14, flp-14;Si (FLP-14), and flp-14;Si (FLP-14);unc-39 where RID was genetically ablated. We quantified the propensity of directional movement (A), the continuity of forward movements, by the re-initiation frequency of forward and backward movement (A’) and the duration of forward and backward movement (A’’), as well as the mean velocity of forward and backward movement. (B–B’’’) Spontaneous motor behavioral output between wild-type Si(FLP-14), flp-14, flp-14;Si (FLP-14), and flp-14;Si (FLP-14) where RID was ablated by a laser beam. All animals were in the background of the RID marker transgene (Pceh-10-GFP) for this set of experiments. A single copy of FLP-14 reversed flp-14 mutants’ motor defects; this effect was abolished when RID was laser ablated. N = 10 animals/genotype. Error bars are ± SEM.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.015
Figure 6—figure supplement 1
Raw data for spontaneous motor behaviors of animals quantified in Figure 6A.

Plots of the body curvature (Y axis, anterior to posterior) over time (X axis) of individual animals of the following genotypes: the single copy insertion of a fragment of the flp-14 genomic fragment in N2 background Si(FLP-14), flp-14, flp-14;Si(FLP-14), flp-14;unc-39, flp-14;unc-39;Si(FLP-14). Each heat-map plot represents one animal. N = 10 animals/genotype. These recordings were performed on the same day. They were recorded on the same plate, one animal at a time, alternating through animals of each genotype. Forward and reversal movements are viewed by the directionality of the curvature propagation; velocities are viewed by the speed of curvature propagation. White regions represent times when the program lost track of the animal, which typically happened when the animal’s head and tail touched each other during turns, or when the animal crawled to the edge of the plate. Si(FLP-14) restored flp-14 mutants’ defects and was similar to that of Si(FLP-14). flp-14;unc-39;Si(FLP-14) mutants exhibited severely reduced forward propensity, continuity, and velocity.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.016
Figure 6—figure supplement 2
Raw data for spontaneous motor behaviors of animals quantified in Figure 6B.

Plots of the body curvature (Y axis, anterior to posterior) overtime (X axis) of individual animals of the following genotypes: the single copy insertion of a fragment of the flp-14 genomic fragment in the hpIs202 (RID marker) background Si(FLP-14), flp-14, flp-14;Si(FLP-14), and flp-14;Si(FLP-14) with RID ablated by a laser beam. The rescuing effect of Si(FLP-14) in flp-14;Si(FLP-14) was abolished upon RID ablation. All animals have hpIs202, a Pceh-10-GFP RID marker that facilitates RID ablation. N = 10 animals/genotype.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.017
Figure 7 with 1 supplement
Activation of RID promotes forward movements in part through FLP-14.

(A) The distribution of the mean run length for all light ON (RID stimulation) and light OFF (no RID stimulation) periods. (B–C) A comparison of the motor behavior response before and after RID optogenetic stimulation in wild-type, unc-39, and flp-14 animals. The change of speed (phasic velocity) before and after RID stimulation in wild-type, unc-39 and flp-14 animals, respectively, was quantified in C. In response to RID stimulation, wild-type animals showed increased velocity and run length during a forward run. This response was abolished in unc-39 mutants and reduced in flp-14 mutants. N = 6–26 animals/per genotype.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.019
Figure 7—figure supplement 1
Restricting chrimson expression in RID by repurposing an embryonic E3 ligase.

(A) Top panel, Representative image of an integrated transgenic array with restricted expression of Chrimson::GFP::ZF1 in the RID and CAN neurons. Most animals in the transgenic strain exhibited expression of Chrimson in RID and CAN. Bottom panel, When Chrimson::GFP in the CAN neuron was targeted for degradation using an endogenous C. elegans embryonic ubiquitin-ligase system, 10% of the population had Chrimson expression restricted to the RID neuron. Scale bar, 20 μm. The bottom panel is a representative image of transgenic animals used for optogenetic experiments. (B) Raw speed (phasic velocity) traces of individual wild-type, flp-14, unc-39, and npr-4 npr-11 before (lights off) and after RID stimulation (lights on).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.020
Figure 8 with 1 supplement
FLP-14 may not function through predicted GPCR receptors.

(A–A’’’) Spontaneous motor output, the propensity of directional movement, and the interruption of forward movement between wild-type (N2) and npr-4 npr-11 animals. Unlike the case for flp-14 and unc-39 mutants, or RID-ablated animals, npr-4 npr-11 double mutants did not exhibit significant motor behavioral changes. N = 10 animals/per genotype. Error bars are ± SEM. (B) The distribution of the mean run length for all light ON (RID stimulation) and light OFF (no RID stimulation) periods. (C, D) A comparison of the motor behavior response before and after RID optogenetic stimulation in npr-4 npr-11 mutants. The change of speed (phasic velocity) before and after RID stimulation in npr-4 npr-11 animals was quantified in D. Wild-type and npr-4 npr-11 double mutants showed a similar increase of run length and velocity in response to RID stimulation. (E) A schematic summary of our findings on RID’s role in sustaining forward locomotion (upper panel), and a speculative model of its currently unknown circuit mechanism (lower panel).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.023
Figure 8—figure supplement 1
The loss of PVC or AVB alone does not abolish RID activity rise during forward movement.

(A) Representative velocity (top) and corresponding RID calcium activity trace (bottom) from a freely moving animal with PVC (and other neurons) ablated. Normalized ratiometric (GCaMP/Cherry) signal changes (ΔF/F), as well as the raw fluorescence intensities of GCaMP and cherry are shown. ΔF/F was used to calculate changes in calcium activity for each animal. Changes in positions of fluorescent signals were used to calculate velocity and directionality. (B) RID activity in PVC (and other neurons)- ablated animals as measured by GCaMP/cherry ratio change (± SEM) during transition periods. Top panel, RID activity increased when animals transitioned from backward to fast forward locomotion. Bottom panel, RID activity decreased when animals transitioned from forward to backward locomotion. For A and B, dotted longitudinal lines indicate transition period from backward to forward locomotion and vice versa (C, D). The same analyses as in A and B, except that experiments were performed in animals where AVB (and other neurons) were ablated. (E, F) Cross-correlation analyses between the change in RID activity, and the change in velocity in PVC (and other neurons)- (E) and AVB (and other neurons)-ablated animals (F). Positive and negative slopes (Y-axis) indicate increase (Calcium Rise) and decrease (Calcium Decay) in RID activity, respectively. Positive and negative values on the X-axis indicate changes in velocity from backward to forward locomotion (acceleration) and from forward to backward locomotion (deceleration), respectively. For B, D, E and F, N = 9–10 animals/genotype. In E and F, each dot represents a transitional event.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.024

Videos

Video 1
Thirty-two consecutive serial sections of a part of the dorsal nerve cord in an adult wild-type animal.

The RID process is outlined in pink, and the DD axon is outlined in green.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.003
Video 2
Changes in the RID calcium transients in moving animals.

RID activity increased during a period of acceleration in a forward bout, or during transitions from reversal to fast forward locomotion. Left panel: RFP; Right panel: GCaMP6. Note that multiple neurons expressed GCaMP6::RFP, but only RID (soma and axon) exhibited signal increase that was correlated with increased forward locomotion.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.009
Video 3
Representative video of a L4 stage wild-type (N2) animal on an NGM plate with a thin-layer of OP50 bacteria food. Head is at the top at the beginning of the video.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.013
Video 4
Representative video of a L4 stage unc-39(hp701) animal on an NGM plate with a thin-layer of OP50 bacteria food. Head is at the bottom at the beginning of the video.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.014
Video 5
Representative video of a L4 stage flp-14(gk1055) animal on an NGM plate with a thin-layer of OP50 bacteria food. Head is at the bottom at the beginning of the video.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.018
Video 6
Representative video of a young adult ZM9315 (RID-specific Chrimson) animal on a thin NGM plate without food, upon RID optogenetic stimulation while the animal was executing forward movement. Head is labeled by the circle on the top right at the beginning of the video.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.021
Video 7
Representative video of a young adult ZM9315 (RID-specific Chrimson) animal on a thin NGM plate without food, upon RID optogenetic stimulation during reversals. Head is labelled by the circle at the left side at the beginning of the video.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.022

Tables

Table 1

Identification of significantly enriched neuropeptide transcripts in RID by subtractive transcriptome profiling.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.007
GeneTranscript counts (Mean±SD)Transcript counts (Mean±SD)Enrichment in GFP+ Cells (Fold change)P values for the enrichment (FDR-corrected; n >= 3 replica)
ClassSequence ID (Gene Name)GFP+ cells (wt) All cells (wt)GFP+ cells
(unc-39 mutants)
All cells
(unc-39 mutants)
wild-typeunc-39 mutantswild-typeunc-39 mutants
Insulin-family
peptide
F56F3.6
(ins-17)
265.6 ± 37.834.4 ± 10.5101.7 ± 68.756.0 ± 17.87.71.82.37E-060.72
FLP-family peptideY37D8A.15 (flp-14)19547.2 ± 586.82917.5 ± 368.08562.1 ± 6291.93427.3 ± 1069.26.72.57.55E-080.53
NLP-family peptideB0213.17
(nlp-34)
67.0 ± 23.29.8 ± 6.537.8 ± 35.313.3 ± 6.56.82.80.010.67
Appendix 1—table 1

A list of genetic mutant strains generated and/or used.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.027
GeneAlleleStrain
unc-39 Vhp701ZM6539
unc-39 Ve257CB257
ced-3 IVn717ZM6097
ced-4 IIIn1162ZM6098
unc-3 Xxd86ZM9343
flp-14 IIIgk1055ZM8969
ins-17 IIItm790ZM2860
Ins-17 flp-14 IIItm790 gk1055ZM9030
snf-11 Vok156RM2710
flp-14III; snf-11Vgk1055; ok156ZM9215
npr-4 Xtm1782ZM9455
npr-11 Xok594ZM9454
npr-4 npr-11 Xtm1782 ok594ZM9455
Appendix 1—table 2

A list of constructs and transgenic strains generated and used (LIN-15 was used as an injection marker if not specified).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.028
ExperimentPlasmidDescription (injection marker)BackgroundTransgeneStrain
RID ReporterspJH2103Pceh-10::GFPlin-15(n765)hpIs202 ZM5488
hpIs201ZM5489
pJH1647Pceh-10::Cherrylin-15(n765)hpIs292ZM6905
pJH1647Pceh-10::Cherry (pRF4)juIs1hpIs162ZM8000
pJH2160
pJH2247
Pceh-10::IDA-1::Cherry
Pceh-10::ins-22::GFP
lin-15(n765)hpEx3669ZM8823
pJH2247
pJH2160
Pceh-10::ins-22::GFP
Pceh-10::IDA-1::Cherry
lin-15(n765)hpEx3669ZM8823
Hobert labPkal-1::GFPunknownotIs33OH904
Hobert labPser-2::GFPunknownotIs107OH2246
pJH2715Pmod-1::mito::GFPlin-15(n765)hpIs274ZM6658
Huang labunc-3 fosmid::SL2::GFP (sur-5::RFP)unc-3(xd86); hpIs162xdEx1091XD2319
unc-39 RelatedpJH2765Plim-4::lim-4::GFPlin-15(n765)hpEx3035ZM7100
pJH2839Punc-39::GFPlin-15(n765)hpIs328ZM7150
pJH2798Genomic unc-39 minimal rescuing cloneunc-39(hp701);not maintainednot maintained
pJH3138unc-39fosmid::GFP (Pmyo-3::RFP)unc-39(e257)hpEx3186ZM7572
pJH2811Punc-39::UNC-39::GFP (RF4)unc-39(hp701);
hpIs292
hpEx3034ZM7482
pJH2839Punc-39::GFPlin-15(n765)hpIs328ZM7150
pJH3366Punc-39::unc-3 cDNA (RF4)unc-39(hp701);
hpIs202
hpEx3498ZM8312
pJH3084
pJH3366
Punc-39::LIM-4 cDNA::GFP
Punc-39::UNC-3 cDNA
unc-39(hp701);
hpIs292
not maintainednot maintained
flp-14 RelatedpJH3884flp-14 genomic miniMos (NeoR)N2 (wt)hpSi38ZM9518
flp-14(gk1055)hpSi38ZM9474
flp-14(gk1055);
unc-39(hp701)

hpSi38

ZM9468
hpIs201hpSi38ZM9473
flp-14(gk1055);
hpIs201

hpSi38

ZM9519
pJH2103Pceh-10::GFPflp-14(gk1055)hpIs201ZM9502
flp-14 and ins-17 ReporterspJH3608Pflp-14::GFPlin-15(n765)hpEx3695ZM8935
Hutter labPins-17::GFP (unc-119)unc-119(ed3)wwEx73HT1734
Calcium ImagingpJH3644Pflp-14::GCaMP6::Cherrylin-15(n765)hpIs587ZM9078
hpIs321hpIs587ZM9312
juIs440hpIs587ZM9404
Optogenetic StimulationpJH3790
pJH3796
pJH3774
Pceh10::Chrimson::GFP::ZF
Pttx-3::ZIF-1::SL2::RFP
Pgpa-14::ZIF-1::SL2::RFP
lin-15(n765)hpIs626ZM9331
(RID/CAN)
pJH3835Parr-1-ZIF-1::SL2::RFPhpIs626hpEx3808ZM9351
(RID only)
unc-39(hp701);
hpIs626
hpEx3808ZM9472
(RID only)
flp-14(gk1055);
hpIs626
hpEx3808ZM9476
(RID only)
npr-4(tm1782)
npr-11(ok594);
hpIs626
hpEx3808ZM9529
(RID only)

Additional files

Supplementary file 1

Table of control transcripts.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.025
Supplementary file 2

Table of enriched transcripts in wild-type and unc-39 cells.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19887.026

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)