(A) Wild-type mice were injected with GluClα-IVM and GluClβ-IVM adeno-associated viruses (AAV; left) into the mPFC and implanted with somnographic electrodes (right). (B) Brain sections were stained against fluorescent protein (GFP) to confirm that GluClα and GluClβ proteins were expressed in the mPFC. Scale bar: 500 μm (left). Drawings of superimposed AAV injection sites in the mPFC are shown on the right (n = 3). (C) GFP (brown) and Fos (black) expression in two mice injected with AAV-GluClα-IVM and AAV-GluClβ-IVM into the mPFC and treated with propylene glycol (PG) or ivermectin (IVM). Scale bars: 20 μm. Blue and black arrows indicate neurons expressing GFP and Fos, respectively. (D) Time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS), REM sleep and wake between 25–48 hr after IVM treatment in mice injected with AAV-GluClα-IVM/AAV-GluClβ-IVM into the mPFC. Other abbreviations: ITR, inverted terminal repeat; CMV, cytomegalovirus; SV40, simian virus 40; EYFP, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein; ECFP, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein; Cg1, cingulate cortex; PrL, prelimbic cortex; IL, infralimbic cortex; DP, dorsal peduncular cortex.