(A) Percentage of airway epithelial cells (AECS) positive for PVM by immunohistochemistry. RAGE deficient, WT (RAGE+), TLR4 deficient and RAGE/TLR4 deficient mice were infected with 10 PFU of PVM at 7 days of age and the viral infection was assessed seven days post-infection. (B) Lung sections were obtained from neonatal RAGE deficient, WT, TLR4 deficient and RAGE/TLR4 deficient mice seven days post-PVM infection (i.e. at 14-days of age). These were then stained from smooth muscle actin by immunohistochemistry and the airway smooth muscle area (ASM) was calculated relative to the basement membrane (BM) length of small airways. Statistical significance was determined by a two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks (*p<0.05;**p<0.01; ***p<0.001; ns: not significant). Box and whisker plots show the minimum value, the median and the maximum value. Data are representative of two independent experiments. n = 5–8.