Transcription start-site (TSS) selection and alternative promoter (AP) usage contribute to gene expression complexity but little is known about their impact on translation. Here we performed TSS mapping of the translatome following energy stress. Assessing the contribution of cap-proximal TSS nucleotides, we found dramatic effect on translation only upon stress. As eIF4E levels were reduced, we determined its binding to capped-RNAs with different initiating nucleotides and found the lowest affinity to 5'cytidine in correlation with the translational stress-response. In addition, the number of differentially translated APs was elevated following stress. These include novel glucose starvation-induced downstream transcripts for the translation regulators eIF4A and Pabp, which are also translationally-induced despite general translational inhibition. The resultant eIF4A protein is N-terminally truncated and acts as eIF4A inhibitor. The induced Pabp isoform has shorter 5'UTR removing an auto-inhibitory element. Our findings uncovered several levels of coordination of transcription and translation responses to energy stress.
- Igor Ulitsky
- Rivka Dikstein
- Igor Ulitsky
- Rivka Dikstein
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Timothy W Nilsen, Case Western Reserve University, United States
© 2017, Tamarkin-Ben-Harush et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Legionella pneumophila causes a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires’ disease. During the infection, Legionella injects more than 300 effector proteins into host cells. Among them are enzymes involved in altering the host-ubiquitination system. Here, we identified two LegionellaOTU (ovarian tumor)-like deubiquitinases (LOT-DUBs; LotB [Lpg1621/Ceg23] and LotC [Lpg2529]). The crystal structure of the LotC catalytic core (LotC14-310) was determined at 2.4 Å. Unlike the classical OTU-family, the LOT-family shows an extended helical lobe between the Cys-loop and the variable loop, which defines them as a unique class of OTU-DUBs. LotB has an additional ubiquitin-binding site (S1’), which enables the specific cleavage of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. By contrast, LotC only contains the S1 site and cleaves different species of ubiquitin chains. MS analysis of LotB and LotC identified different categories of host-interacting proteins and substrates. Together, our results provide new structural insights into bacterial OTU-DUBs and indicate distinct roles in host–pathogen interactions.
The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, its receptor-binding domain (RBD), and its primary receptor ACE2 are extensively glycosylated. The impact of this post-translational modification on viral entry is yet unestablished. We expressed different glycoforms of the Spike-protein and ACE2 in CRISPR-Cas9 glycoengineered cells, and developed corresponding SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. We observed that N- and O-glycans had only minor contribution to Spike-ACE2 binding. However, these carbohydrates played a major role in regulating viral entry. Blocking N-glycan biosynthesis at the oligomannose stage using both genetic approaches and the small molecule kifunensine dramatically reduced viral entry into ACE2 expressing HEK293T cells. Blocking O-glycan elaboration also partially blocked viral entry. Mechanistic studies suggest multiple roles for glycans during viral entry. Among them, inhibition of N-glycan biosynthesis enhanced Spike-protein proteolysis. This could reduce RBD presentation on virus, lowering binding to host ACE2 and decreasing viral entry. Overall, chemical inhibitors of glycosylation may be evaluated for COVID-19.