(A) B16 and B16ρ0 cells were stably knocked down for either NDUFV1 or SDHC, or transfected with non-silencing (NS) shRNA, and the expression of NDUFS3, NDUFV1, SDHA and SDHC was assessed by WB. The sub-lines were next evaluated for proliferation on days 1 (D1), D2, D3 and D4 (B), for routine, leak and ETS respiration (C), and for respiration via CI and CII (D). Balb/-c nude mice were injected s.c. with 5 × 106 B16ρ0 cells as well as cells with NDUFV1 KD or SDHC KD cells (E), or with B16 cells and the derived NDUFV1 KD or SDHC KD cells (F), with six mice per group except for the NDUFV1 group with five animals. Individual mice were assessed for tumor volume using USI. Tumours derived from B16ρ0 and B16 cells were averaged and plotted as mean values, while tumours derived from knock-down cells were plotted individually. Circles on the X-axis represent individual mice in which tumours did not form within the duration of the experiment. (G) Mice with tumours derived from cell lines as shown in the Figure were sacrificed, and tumours fixed, sectioned and stained with H and E. The symbol ‘*' indicates statistically significant differences between B16 cells and NDUFV1 KD or SDHC KD cells.