Mitochondrial transport in axons is critical for neural circuit health and function. While several proteins have been found that modulate bidirectional mitochondrial motility, factors that regulate unidirectional mitochondrial transport have been harder to identify. In a genetic screen, we found a zebrafish strain in which mitochondria fail to attach to the dynein retrograde motor. This strain carries a loss-of-function mutation in actr10, a member of the dynein-associated complex dynactin. The abnormal axon morphology and mitochondrial retrograde transport defects observed in actr10 mutants are distinct from dynein and dynactin mutant axonal phenotypes. In addition, Actr10 lacking the dynactin binding domain maintains its ability to bind mitochondria, arguing for a role for Actr10 in dynactin-mitochondria interaction. Finally, genetic interaction studies implicated Drp1 as a partner in Actr10-dependent mitochondrial retrograde transport. Together, this work identifies Actr10 as a factor necessary for dynactin-mitochondria interaction, enhancing our understanding of how mitochondria properly localize in axons.
- Catherine M Drerup
- Alex V Nechiporuk
- Alex V Nechiporuk
- Amy L Herbert
- Amy L Herbert
- Kelly R Monk
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations specified in the Oregon Health and Science University Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. All animals were handled in accordance with the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocol # IS00002972.
- Tanya T Whitfield, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
The proprioceptive system is essential for the control of coordinated movement, posture and skeletal integrity. The sense of proprioception is produced in the brain using peripheral sensory input from receptors such as the muscle spindle, which detects changes in the length of skeletal muscles. Despite its importance, the molecular composition of the muscle spindle is largely unknown. In this study, we generated comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic datasets of the entire muscle spindle isolated from the murine deep masseter muscle. We then associated differentially expressed genes with the various tissues composing the spindle using bioinformatic analysis. Immunostaining verified these predictions, thus establishing new markers for the different spindle tissues. Utilizing these markers, we identified the differentiation stages the spindle capsule cells undergo during development. Together, these findings provide comprehensive molecular characterization of the intact spindle as well as new tools to study its development and function in health and disease.
Tissue-intrinsic defense mechanisms eliminate aberrant cells from epithelia and thereby maintain the health of developing tissues or adult organisms. 'Interface surveillance' comprises one such distinct mechanism that specifically guards against aberrant cells which undergo inappropriate cell fate and differentiation programs. The cellular mechanisms which facilitate detection and elimination of these aberrant cells are currently unknown. We find that in Drosophila imaginal discs, clones of cells with inappropriate activation of cell fate programs induce bilateral JNK activation at clonal interfaces, where wild type and aberrant cells make contact. JNK-activation is required to drive apoptotic elimination of interface cells. Importantly, JNK-activity and apoptosis are highest in interface cells within small aberrant clones, which likely supports the successful elimination of aberrant cells when they arise. Our findings are consitent with a model where clone size affects the topology of interface contacts and thereby the strength of JNK activation in wild type and aberrant interface cells. Bilateral JNK activation is unique to 'interface surveillance' and is not observed in other tissue-intrinsic defense mechanisms, such as classical 'cell-cell competition'. Thus, bilateral JNK interface signaling provides an independent tissue-level mechanism to eliminate cells with inappropriate developmental fate but normal cellular fitness. Finally, oncogenic Ras-expressing clones activate 'interface surveillance' but evade elimination by bilateral JNK activation. Combined, our work establishes bilateral JNK interface signaling and interface apoptosis as a new hallmark of interface surveillance, and highlights how oncogenic mutations evade tumor suppressor function encoded by this tissue-intrinsic surveillance system.